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COTTON- - -FAMILY- - -RELIGION

Our values are represented by:

COTTON symbolizes daily activities related to productivity.

FAMILY works together as the mainstay of life, and

RELIGION glues all parts together.

1868

The voting precinct for Beat No. 4 is removed from Shufordville to Clarksville.[1]

The good years came first, but passed too soon: the 1868 crop produced nearly a hundred thousand bales larger than that of 1867; cotton prices rose sharply.[2]

GENSBURGER

MARX

Born in Fraunenberg, Germany; date of immigration unknown. He married Julia Levy, daughter of Ephraim Levy and Rosa Wolf.[3]

CHILDREN

Sarah was the first Jewish girl born in Friars Point, Coahoma County in 1868. Very little is known about her birth; however, the family moved to Gunnison, Mississippi prior to the 1870 census as the next daughter was born in Gunnison in 1870.[4]

RICHBERGER/PACHTER/SALOMON

(1880, 1890, 1910, 1920)

John Pachter wrote,

According to the family story, great-grandfather David Pachter left New York City a poor man in search of work in Pennsylvania, but then disappeared. The family believed he drowned in the tragic Johnstown, Pennsylvania flood of May 31, 1889, in which more than 2,000 souls perished when an old earthen dam burst, sending an avalanche of water down the mountain above the town.[5] Left alone to care for her four children, Sara was saved by family connections in Mississippi – a marriage between two first cousins, Sara’s nephew George and niece Mary --not uncommon in those days. Sara’s sister Fannie and her husband Jacob Richberger had one child, George. They brought George to this country in 1864 when he was six, and raised him in an Irish settlement in Harlem, where he acquired an Irish accent. Sara’s brother Hayim and his wife had six children, including a daughter Mary, who married her first cousin George Richberger.

George’s parents Jacob and Fanny Richberger were the pioneers in the family. Every family has a story, based on fact, myth (or a combination), about how its earliest ancestors made their way South. The story of Jacob and Fannie goes like this. Hearing of opportunities in the South, Jacob ventured down about 1880 and opened a store in Rich, later known as Lula, about twenty miles north of Clarksdale. Jacob left Fannie and George in charge of their store in Harlem. Once established in Mississippi, Jacob sent for his wife and son. After selling off some of their merchandise, George and Fannie had a wagon built with shelves and sleeping quarters and bought a pair of mules. On the way, they sold all of their stock, and, at their destination, sold the mules and the wagon.

George’s first cousin Mary, on arrival in America, received an invitation to visit her Mississippi relatives. Her father agreed on the condition she would return to New York. She never did. When George met Mary’s train in Memphis, he found a beautiful girl of 19, and soon proposed marriage. So Fannie welcomed a niece but got a daughter-in-law as well. In about 1889, with these family members established in Mississippi, Sara Pachter arranged for her son Henry (now 12) and his older brother John to work for their cousin George and his father Jacob. Henry would recall the frontier life in Rich, of Saturday night hold-ups and fist fights. He and John looked forward to the fights on Saturday night. Although physically small, they were accustomed to the tough street life of the lower east side, and had well-developed arms and chests.

In two or three years, Henry and John persuaded their sister Annie, now married to Arthur Salomon, to join them and open a general merchandise store in nearby Jonestown, Mississippi. Arthur and Annie, a tiny but energetic person, raised eight children (David, Ruby, Herman, Cecil, Teddy, Sara, Louise and Harry Lee) while working in their store. The store, the first to open in Jonestown, was about 110 feet deep. In the front were bolt goods sold by the yard. Annie, a wonderful seamstress, made all her girls’ clothes and shirts and pants for the boys as well. Any fabric that did not sell she took home to make dresses and put in the store for sale. These dresses were the first ready-made clothes offered in the area. In the back of the store were canned groceries, molasses and cider, and barrels of flour and meal.

1900 Census shows Mary P. was living in Jonestown in 1868, age six (born 9/1861); This may have been Mary Pollewada as she was born in Russia and immigrated with her parents and brother when she was six years old. Mary's granddaughter, did not know her last name.[6] She married George Richberger in 1882 in Memphis, TN. Rabbi Samfield's Marriage registry showed “Mary Pollewada.”[7] Land Deed Record, 2nd District Coahoma County showed her name on property after 1878; however, transaction dates were not available between 1860 and 1878.T.[8]

1869

An election is held for the ratification of a new State Constitution and for State officers. J. L. Alcorn wins in the race for Governor over his opponent, Louis Dent, brother-in-law of President Grant, and resident of Coahoma County.[9] Alcorn lived in at Eagle’s Nest which is now in plain view from a public road leading from Jonestown to Clarksdale. The actual eagle's nest was built in one of the tallest trees whose diameter was twelve feet. It remains intact For more than a quarter of a century was the domicile of many birds.[10]

Each indentured slave had a deed for being freed during the period of 1868 and 1869.[11] These are mixed among the bankruptcies, mortgages. Men are listed as property in a Deed book for establishing their freedom.[12]

Cotton reached an average of $25 per pound by 1869, but this fell to $1.70 during the early 1870s.[13]

When John Clark returned from fighting in the Civil War as a procurement officer in the Confederate army, he finished building his home. He next turned to gathering support for starting a new town. For example, he opened a farm implement section within a general store and built a Methodist church alongside the Little Sunflower River bank. During the same year, other men joined him and erected stores facing the river ― two competing general stores, a saloon, and a savings and loan bank. Because others living in surrounding villages found both the stores and the church a welcome convenience, they began moving closer. Thus, Clark used these results to justify filing the proposal using his farm, Clarksville, as a town plat[14] (Figure 3)

Harris Brenner, came to the Delta in 1869.[15]

Figure 3 First Proposal 1869 Clarksville Plat Map

Figure 3: First Proposal –1869 Clarksville Plat Map

The Clarksville Plat Map proposed “a village of seventy-six uniform blocks … odd-sized riverside lots, eight streets … and … a large square for markets and public assemblies.”[16] The map, however, failed to show Issaquena Avenue, or where the railroad tracks would be laid. This village plan belonged to John Clark, a lumberman, farmer, and landowner from Ashton, England who became the founder of Clarksdale.

1870

“Fabulous Packets” by Miriam Dabbs stated:

Luxurious steamboats piled the Mississippi River and its tributaries in the latter part of the nineteenth and early twentieth century . . . . Milton M. Painter, who lived in Friars Point, was a cameraman and his pictures of life on the river in the days before the steamboats disappeared are authentic and exciting.

The KATE ADAMS was one of the last of the fabulous packets which have their final grand filing in the 1870s. There had been glory days of 1850 to 1861 when the Civil War docked these boats for its duration. Then toward the end of the 1800s the steamboat began losing capital workers and mail contracts to the new railroads.

At one time there were thirty-two passenger steamboats 48,000 tons marching up and down the Mississippi.[17]

June 30:The Great Steamboat Race from New Orleans to St. Louis between the Natchez and the Robert E. Lee began.[18]

The two boats, ROBERT E.LEE and NATCHEZ, left the Wharf at New Orleans at 4:55 p.m. The Lee reached the Wharf first at St. Louis on July 4th at 11:25 am, which was three days, eighteen hours and thirty minutes. (Because of a dangerous fog the Natchez tied up for hours at Devil’s Island, but the Robert E. Lee kept on, coming in first …. The distance was 1,210 miles.[19]

June:Mobile and Northwestern Railroad (M&N) and the Mississippi and Vicksburg Railroad (M&V) had received charters from the state to run a railroad tracks across the Delta.[20]

Planters who had once lived fairy tale lives in their graceful pillared mansions struggled to make a crop without their slave labor. Even when they suffered from “the Reconstruction”, they recalled and retold family stories rich in history about the privileged lifestyles on the plantations. The young immigrant peddlers nodded their heads in understanding when they heard the legends of the early settlers. They commiserated with the planters when they spoke of the hardships they suffered when they cleared and drained the malarial swamps and planted their crops. They understood the special bond these men had with the land and the love they felt for their families and their religion. These stories mirrored the feelings the peddlers had for their homeland and the families they had left behind in villages in Germany and Prussia and Russia. They knew what it meant to be “rich” in history and lore and love of family and at the same time, poor in material goods.[21]

The 1870 and 1880 Census records identified about sixteen Prussians who spent time in this county and moved on. The following list identifies those individuals who were not located through research and interviews.

Julius Harris, Prussian merchant, age 40 (born 1830)

Julius Hart, Prussian merchant, age 20 (born 1850)

B. Kosan, Prussian carpenter, age 23 (born 1847)

Lee Landau, Prussian merchant, age 21 (born 1849)

Henry Summerfield, Prussian furniture ? Age 30 (born 1840)

James L. Alcorn joined the Republican Party. Although elected as the first Republican Governor (1870-8 he was an old-line Mississippi Whig from Coahoma County.) Thus, he struggled with his conciliatory stance towards blacks. He supported ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment, but Mississippians did not accept it. Mississippians ratified the Fifteenth Amendment in March 1870; thus, Mississippi was readmitted to the Union.[22]

From the 1870s to the turn of the century, approximately twenty-five Jewish men settled in Coahoma County: The following were identified as arriving in the 1870s: Gentsburger, Adolph, Julius and Isidor Kerstine, Marks brothers, Mary Richberger, Sam Sack, H. Silverblatt, Arthur Salomon and Moses Wronker.

Northerners and freedmen participating in the political leadership created political seeds that caused significant changes in Coahoma County. Due to laws described in many history books, such as the Black Codes, "the 'crop lien" and the Freedman's Bureau Act, black sharecroppers refused to contract with the white planters. Other books and literature described well the racial tensions that mounted in the Black Belt of the Delta.[23]

RICHBERGER

(1880, 1890, 1910, 1920)

JACOB

Gertrude Friedman Nelson did not know who Jacob was. She said, “Maybe he was the father, my great grandfather?” Gertrude said her great grandfather lived alone. Jacob Richberger is listed as 45 years old in 1880 Census. She spoke of one Richberger that attempted to return to Europe but the ship went down during the journey.

FANNIE

Jacob’s wife, Fannie was 45 years old in 1880 Census. In addition, Ann Pachter, age 14 was living with this couple.[24]

1871


By 1871 this small village was referred to as “Clarksdale” by the Coahoma County Board of Supervisors. The same year in which the Rules of Reconstruction authorized an election of county officers. The ballot included a proposed bond for a railroad, the Mobile and Northwestern (M. & N.Railroad).[25]

First election of county officers, following military rule, is held, including the vote for bond issue for the benefit of the proposed Mobile and Northwestern Railroad. The State incorporated the Levee District Number 1 and the Coahoma County Board of Supervisors supported the first railroad bond proposal during 1871. Poor funding slowed progress on both.[26]

1872

MARKS

(1890, 1900, 1910)

LEOPOLD

Married Pauline Marks at the Peabody in Memphis, TN.[27]

SACK

(1890, 1900, 1910, 1920)

SAM G

Sam was 38 years old in 1900. He immigrated from Russia in 1852 and lived alone on Delta Avenue. He was a of a dry goods merchant.[28] It is not confirmed that this is the brother of Aaron Sack.

1873

COHEN

(1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ISAAC and HARRIS

July 14:Trust Deed and mortgage with George Thompson. Cohens are from Chicat, County, Arkansas. The land held in trust was Malone Plantation in Coahoma County.[29]

KERSTINE

(1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ADOLPH

Four Different Stories about Adolph's Coming to America:

1.      Corinne said she understood Adolph came alone to the US in about 1860 and peddled his way to Greenwood with the circus or something. It sounded as though he came alone, rather than with his family.“Yes, that is right; he came alone. He came from Germany--from Czarnikau. I believe. I think that is what Isidor told me. In those days it was Prussia. ) It would be considered Poland today. He was raised as a German, like my father was. He had German parents who lived in Prussia.[30]

  1. Selma said Adolph stowed away on a ship when he was thirteen years old. He left home because his mother had died and his father wanted to marry his mother's sister. Adolph did not like her.[31]
  2. The orbit says he lived in Czarnikau until he was nineteen.[32]
  3. Different passport data and the 1910 U.S. Census shows Adolph reported different years for his original immigration date: 1974, 1976, and 1980.[33]

Corinne said:

the Kerstines were the first of two Jewish families to come to Clarksdale. ) But I do know that he settled in what is Jonestown today. That is where he stopped. He had a store, a liquor store; however, liquor was free then. He was the postman. I don’t know exactly when he got into Clarksdale, but he lived a long time in Jonestown. He was the first Jew in that area.

Adolph rode a horse to Friars Point to take a packet [boat] to Memphis. He carried up to $200 and a gun with him. In Memphis he did his banking and buying at William R Moore’s wholesale house. Then, he would bring it back. I have often wondered how he got his merchandise back to his store--a distance of about maybe twelve miles from Friars Point.[34]

Selma said:

I heard old men talking that there was nothing but saloons when they first came to the area.() I heard Adolph say that old man Clark wouldn't sell any property to anybody that owned a saloon. Although Adolph had owned a saloon, Selma was unable to explain why John Clark had sold land to Adolph. (Selma1, 20) She added that Adolph didn't talk much about his life before he married his wife [35]

Different Versions about the man Adolph killed:

Corinne said, “Adolph Kerstine killed a man in Jonestown. Killing the man was not the cause of losing his postmaster job because it happened a long time before he lost his job. Isidor , Adolph's son, told several people different versions:” For example:

One version is that carpetbaggers came in his saloon. He believed that they were planning to rob him; he told one that if he took another step he would shoot. Happened before his marriage but Corinne, nor Selma, could not pinpoint a time frame.[36]

1874

MARKS

(1890, 1900, 1910)

LEOPOLD & JACOB

December 30: Mortgage granted by Jordon Hopson to Leopold and Jacob Marks Brother. Note on Margin of page 200 stated that this mortgage was transferred by Morris Israel and J. Marks on February 15, 1877.[37]

1875

September 20: Post Office at Clarksdale established with John A. Suddoth, postmaster. This information was copied from a letter to a member of a local WPA project from the First Assistant Postmaster General’s office.[38]

Miriam Dabbs in a feature article said:

During this period the Delta was described as a 'veritable Sodom' where 'Whiskey drinking, gambling, and Sabbath-breaking were common and prevailing sins of the country …. The Baptists, the Methodists, and the Presbyterians took their beliefs and doctrines seriously. Numerically they were the [largest] denominations in the South. Consequently there was competition for winning souls. Fiery debates between clerics [were] not uncommon …. Churches served as community houses and the social life of an area centered there. To be effective the minister had to be an individualist and a leader.[39]

Weeks said the 1875 riots which occurred in Friars Point were termed 'Riot of Black and Whites.' He continued:

…. Article in Coahomian. and described extensively …. In his book, The Day of the Carpetbagger: Republican Reconstruction in Mississippi, William C. Harris relied mostly on Alcorn's testimony in the Jackson’s, Clarion, October 13, 1875, for an account of' the Friars Point fracas: The story in the Jackson newspaper was very similar to the New York Tribune report. According to Harris, however, Otis A. Singletary his book, Negro Militia and Reconstruction, reported that eight black citizens were killed in the riot."

But the decade was not finished with Coahoma County. Not yet. As if man's cruelty to man were not enough, the mosquito reached its malevolent potential in the damp and disastrous summer of 1878. And yellow fever brought Friars Point to its knees.[40]

KERSTINE

(1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

JULIUS

Julius was Postmaster for the village of Friars Point, at the same time that Adolph told family members that he was postmaster at Jonestown.[41] Government records show Julius as postmaster at Delta from March 19, 1875 to May 22, 1878.[42]

MARKS

(1880, 1890, 1900, 1910)

LEOPOLD

March 17:Leopold married Pauline Marks at Peabody Hotel, Memphis, TN.[43]

HARRY

Harry was born in 1863 in Russia and immigrated in 1875. He was living in Friars Point and owned a dry goods store. His wife Lizzie was born in 1868 in Russia and immigrated in 1875.. They married in 1876.[44]

CHILDREN:

(1)             SARAHBorn 1888

(2)             BESSIEBorn in 1894

(3)             LEWISBorn in 1896[45]

SILVERBLATT

WILLIAM

The 1900 U.S. Census says he was born in Russia in 1850. He immigrated in 1889. He married a Matilda in 1877. She was born in Russia in 1858 and immigrated with William in 1889. He was a merchant in Friars Point. The couple did not have children.[46].

Living in Friars Point(Friars Point Coahomian, 3) Mrs. Charles Silverblatt used to sing in the choir. She lived in Friars Point.[47]

MORRIS

September 14: Newspaper Notice about a move to a new store in Friars Point.[48] He is not shown in the 1900, 1910 or 1920 U. S. Census.

CHILDREN

Morris had 2 daughters and 3 sons. He lived in Friars Point.[49](B. Hirsberg, 19)

(1)LOUIS

(2)ABE

(3) SAM

(4)REBECCA “BECKY”

My oldest brother was married to Rebecca Silverblatt. She came from Friars Point. Her parents lived there. They had a store there. No, my oldest brother-Abe Kline married Rebecca.[50]

HARRY

SMALL

(1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

D.P.

March: Mortgage given by W. G. King to D. P. Small.[51]

1876

J.M. Stone, Governor of Mississippi

Points of Interest listed: Levee District went bankrupt and the territory was again without any levee organization.[52]

LEVY

(1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

Lionel Levy Jr. acted as Notary Public for a Trust Deed from the Estate of John Fontaine.[53]

MARKS

(1880, 1890, 1900, 1910)

January 12:Land Ease given by William L. Smith to Marks and Bowman partnership.[54]

February 12:Mortgage given by Wilson David.[55]

February 12:Articles of a Partnership between Leopold & Jacobs Marks and William A. Bowman for the purpose of farming.[56]

March 31:Deed Trust given by Henry Clay.[57]

April 15:Deed Trust given by Henry Hill to Marks Bros and T. F. Hammitt.[58]

April 15:Deed Trust has given by Chance Clarke and Alex Evans.[59]

May 2: Deed Trust given by Marks Bros (Friars Point) to Simon Sulig and Lee Sanders, Helena, Phillips, AR.[60]

May 5:Assignment conveyed to Julius Kerstine for real and personal property being mortgaged by Simon Sulig. Kerstine paid $1.[61]

May 15:Lease Trust given by Elizabeth N. Strode to Leopold Marks for property in Friars Point.[62]

1877

Strip of territory on eastern border given to newly organized county, Quitman.[63]

Clarksdale, not “Clarksville” is mentioned as a location when John Clark sells land to the Methodist Episcopal Church South at Clarksdale, MS. Sale was $1.[64]

October 13: Two-time Governor and three-time Senator Theodore G. Bilbo was born in Juniper Grove, Pearl River County.[65]

Only eight miles of M&N track had been laid from Dowd's Landing to Lula;. A line [of railroad] stretched another ten miles southwest to Jonestown.[66]

KERSTINE

(1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ISIDOR

U.S. Postmasters Registry showed Isidor Kerstine, Jonestown Postmaster, from June 18, 1877 to Mar 23, 1880.[67]

PACHTER

(1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ROSA

Rosa, age 14, was a niece living with Fannie and Jacob Richberger in 1880. Gertrude said she did not know anything about.[68]

SARAH

Sarah was Anne Pachter‘s mother .She was born in Russia in 1845. and the mother of ten children. Because she was a widow and living in the home of her daughter Annie Salomon, she listed herself as the house keeper in the 1900 U. S. Census. Annie's husband, Arthur Salomon. No immigration date was given; however, Annie listed 1888 as her immigration year. Arthur reported 1878 as his immigration year.[69]

RICHBERGER

(1880, 1890, 1900, 1910)

September 10: Deed Trust given by T. L. Potts.[70]

September 26:Deed Trust given by T. L. Potts.[71]

1878

PROPERTY TAX ROLL:

1.Israel Irvin, Julius Kerstine of Jonestown paid personal property tax.[72]

2.Jacob Marks, Moses Wronker of Clarksdale paid personal property tax.[73]

3.Noah Jacobs of Delta paid personal property tax.[74]

YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC

Yellow fever epidemic―Eighteen whites and seven colored die at Friars Point.[75]

The mosquito reached its malevolent potential in the damp and disastrous summer of 1878. And yellow fever brought Friars Point to its knees. Louis Adams was teacher at Grange School.

Brought down by boat from Memphis, yellow fever soon swept through the town like a tornado. According to Alida Heidelberg, the dread disease--replete with chills and fever and black bile vomit--affected nearly every white resident of the river town. But there was nary a single case of yellow fever in the black community. 'The Negroes cared for the sick, buried the dead and comforted the bereaved,' Mrs. Heidelberg wrote, 'so only thirteen years after the Civil War, race relations were back to normal.' [76]

Those Friars Point folks who could afford it escaped to the hills where it was cool, and where water did not gather in stagnant pools. George F. Maynard traced the onset of the fever to the nephew of A. B. Rozelle. Maynard's brother, M. L. Maynard, was the wharf master at Friars Point and when Rozelle's nephew came down on the Anchor Line for a visit from St. Louis, he contracted the fever in Memphis. Maynard contracted the fever, but recovered. His brother, Joe Maynard, died almost immediately after being exposed …. Maynard believed the cigar smoke kept the mosquitoes at bay.[77]

KERSTINE

(1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

JULIUS

June 11:Julius Kerstine buys Jonestown property from G. M. Pittman & wife.[78]

Personal Property tax rolls showed Kerstine paid personal property tax for the first time in Jonestown.[79]

RICHBERGER

(1880, 1890, 1900, 1910)

GEORGE

November 12: Trust Deed with T. L. Potts for Jonestown property.[80]

JACOB

October 16:Jacob assigned Fannie $500 and two bales of cotton as compensation so that she would relinquish all rights to his Jonestown merchandise business. Julius Kerstine, Justice of the Peace, signed it.[81]

SALOMON

ARTHUR

Arthur Salomon arrived in 1878. Immigrated in 1878; and married in 1895. He was a German merchant in Jonestown.[82]

1879

Another 10 miles of additional railroad track extended south to Clarksdale. By the end of the 1870s, the railroads system that would take the Delta to the 21st century had harmony delays and problems.  It did not discourage the local residents because the families had proven that cotton, family and religion would survive the good and bad times.[83]

KERSTINE

(1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

April 18:Trust Deed for Jonestown property from Julius to J.L. Alcorn.[84]

MARCUS

(1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

LEON T.

1900 Census which read Leon T. , a merchant, was born 1870 and immigrated from Russia in 1879. Mary, his wife was born September, 1872 and immigrated from Europe in 1870. Selma, daughter was born in Mississippi in 1892, and Abie/Abel in Texas in 1897.[85]

RICHBERGER

(1880, 1890, 1900, 1910)

JACOB

June 26:Trust Deed Fannie for $2500 to be repaid within 30 days.[86]


[1]Sage and Madge P. Baucom, Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936.

[2]Cobb, James, “Plantation Frontier,” The Most Southern Place on Earth: The Mississippi Delta and the roots of Regional Identity (Oxford, 1992), 21, “A 'Harnessed Revolution,'” 63.

[3]Davidson, Hermine interview with author, April, 2005.

[4]Ibid.

[5]David McCullough, The Johnstown Flood, Simon & Schuster.

[6]Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with author, March 16, 1995.

[7]Samfield, Rabbi Sam. Marriage Registry: 1876-1884, Temple Israel Archives, Memphis, TN.

[8]1900; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 3B; Enumeration District: 0023; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 5. Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview, March 16, 1995.

[9]Weeks, Linton, “Reconstruction and Rigor Mortis,” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History (Clarksdale, 1982), 51.

[10]Mosley, Louis, and Heaton, “Points of Interest in Coahoma County.”Kaufman Research Collection.

[11]Freedman Deeds; http://freedmensbureau.com;” accessed August 28, 2014.

1.                [12] Kerstine, Corinne interview with author, December 30, 1999.

[13]Cobb “A 'Harnessed Revolution,'” 63.

[14]Weeks, “Machine in the Garden,” 60; Clarksdale, The Queen City; Its History and Promise for Future, August 23, 1926. Clarksdale Microfilm Scrapbook #1, 5; Land Deed Record #H, 2nd District Coahoma County County, 677.

[15]Brenner, Charles interview and private Brenner Genealogical Collection. 1994-2015.

[16]Ibid.

[17]Dabbs, Miriam, “Fabulous Packets,” Here’s Clarksdale, 1973 Nov-Dec 20-23.

[18]Historical Documents Co New Orleans Steamboat Co.

[19]Cooper, Forrest Lamar, “Mississippi Matter of Fact”, 1995 Calendar (Florence, MS, 1995), use dates for page number. Documents Co New Orleans Steamboat Co.

[20]Weeks, “Machine in the Garden,” 61.

[21]Tucker, Judy and Margery Kerstine (FIND REST OF REFERENCE)

[22]Cobb, “A 'Harnessed Revolution,'” 57, 61; Morris, 246; Weeks, “Reconstruction and Rigor Mortis,” 50-55.

[23]Cobb, “A 'Harnessed Revolution,'” 62; Weeks, “Reconstruction and Rigor Mortis,” 50-55.

[24]1880; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 645; Family History Film: 1254645; Page: 391B; Enumeration District: 099; Image: 0204, 2.

[25]Weeks, “Machine in the Garden,” 60.

[26]Ibid, 61.

[27]Rabbi Max Samfield Marriage Registry: 1871-1875, Temple Israel Archives, Memphis, TN; Beth El Cemetery, Helena, AR.

[28]Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 8B; Enumeration District: 0025-0027; FHL microfilm: 1240805; http//:www.ancestry.com; accessed 06/02/2015, 26.

[29]Land Deed Record #H, 2nd District Coahoma County County Chancery Clerk Office, Clarksdale, Mississippi.Land Deed Record Book N, 31.

[30]Kerstine, Corinne home interview with author, 1977-1998, transcripts.

[31]Weinberger, Selma home interview with author, 1987-2001, transcripts

[32]Mr. Kerstine Is Taken at Home in Clarksdale Sun." Clarksdale Daily News and Daily News (Clarksdale, Mississippi), January 1936.

[33]National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington D.C.; NARA Series: Passport Applications, 1795-1905; Roll #: 309; Volume #: Roll 309 - 15 Jun 1888-22 Jun 1888. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington D.C.; NARA Series: Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 - March 31, 1925; Roll #: 2219; Volume #: Roll 2219 - Certificates: 266850-267349, 11 Apr 1923-11 Apr 1923, 547. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington D.C.; NARA Series: Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 - March 31, 1925; Roll #: 2732; Volume #: Roll 2732 - Certificates: 8100-8699, 23 Mar 1925-24 Mar 1925, 183. 1880; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 645; Family History Film: 1254645; Page: 391A; Enumeration District: 099; mage: 0203, 1. [Note: Page completed on June 4th 1880,] 1910; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 12A; Enumeration District: 0033; FHL microfilm: 1374750, 23. Accessed June 6, 2015. http://www.Ancestry.com.

[34]Kerstine, Corinne home interview, 1977-1998, transcripts.

[35]Weinberger, Selma home interview with author, 1987-2001, transcripts.

[36]Kerstine, Corinne home interview, 1977-1998, transcripts.

[37]Land Deed Record #N, 2nd District Coahoma County, p. (Land Deed Record, 220, 221.

[38]Clarksdale Library Microfilm Scrapbook #1, 103.

[39]Edwards, Olive. “”Last Words and Testament of Reverend Thomas Wesley Dye.: Here's Clarksdale, May-June 1980, 6.

[40]Weeks, “Reconstruction and Rigor Mortis,” 57.

[41]Corinne Kerstine interview with Harold Forst, Jackson, MS., December, 19/85, transcript.

[42]U.S. Postmasters Registry , Clarksdale Mississippi Room, Clarksdale Public Library.

[43]Samfield, Rabbi Sam. Marriage Registry: 1871-1875, Temple Israel Archives, Memphis, TN.

[44]1900 United States Federal Census for Lizzie Silverblatt.”Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 2, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 6A; Enumeration District: 0020; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 11, Lines 7-11. Accessed January 4, 2016. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[45] Ibid.

[46]“1900 United States Federal Census for William Silverblatt.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 2, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 6A; Enumeration District: 0020; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 10. Lines 82-83. Accessed January 3, 2016. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[47]Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcript with author, Jackson, MS., December, 1985, transcript. Margery Kerstine Private Collection.

[48]Friars Point Coahomian (Friars Point, Mississippi), September 14, 1907.

[49]Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgy” interview and transcripts with author, April 27, 1994.

[50]Kline, Aaron, Adele Cohen Kline , and Corinnne Kerstine interview and transcript with authori, Novermber 28, 1993.

[51]Land Mortgage Record #N, 2nd District Coahoma County, 451.

[52]Mosley, Louis, and Heaton, “Points of Interest in Coahoma County.”Kaufman Research Collection.

[53] Land Deed Record #R, 2nd District Coahoma County, 482.

[54]Land Deed Record #P, 2nd District Coahoma County, 559

[55]Ibid, 581.

[56]Ibid, 586.

[57]Land Mortgage Record #Q, 2nd District Coahoma County, 112.

[58]Ibid, 144.

[59]Ibid, 185.

[60]Ibid, 237.

[61]Ibid, 241.

[62]Ibid, 357.

[63]Sage and Madge P. Baucom, Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936.

[64]Land Deed Record #Q, 2nd District Coahoma County, 609.

[65]Cooper, Forrest Lamar, “Mississippi Matter of Fact”, 1995 Calendar (Florence, MS, 1995), use dates for page number.

[66]Weeks, “Machine in the Garden,” 61.

[67]U.S. Postmasters Registry , Clarksdale Mississippi Room, Clarksdale Public Library.

[68]Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with author, March 16, 1995, transcript, Margery Kerstine Collection. 1880; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 645; Family History Film: 1254645; Page: 391B; Enumeration District: 099; Image: 0204, 2. Accessed June 7, 2015. http://www.Ancestry.com.

[69]Jacobson, Edith interviews with author, 1993-2015, transcripts on some, but not all conversations. 1900; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 3B; Enumeration District: 0023; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 5.

[70]Land Mortgage Record #R, 2nd District Coahoma County, 75.

[71]Ibid, 77.

[72]Coahoma County Tax, Roll #29.

[73]Ibid.

[74]Ibid.

[75]Sage and Madge P. Baucom, Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936.

[76]Weeks, “Reconstruction and Rigor Mortis, 57. He quoted from Alida Heidelberg papers, Clarksdale Public Library.

[77]Weeks, “Reconstruction and Rigor Mortis, 58. He quoted from George F. Maynard papers, Clarksdale Public Library.

[78]Land Deeds Record #R, 2nd District Coahoma County, 355, MS Archives

[79]Personal Property tax roll, MS Archives.

[80]Land Mortgage Record #R, 2nd District Coahoma County, 493.

[81]Unknonwn: LAND DEED RECORD BOOK/Page

[82]United States. National Archives. Washington, D C. “Interactive.ancestry.com ” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 3B; Enumeration District: 0023; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 5, Lines 64-69. Accessed August 30, 2015. http:// interactive.ancestry.com.

[83]Weeks, “Reconstruction and Rigor Mortis, 58. Sage and Madge P. Baucom, Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936.

[84]Land Mortgage Record #S, 2nd District Coahoma County, 24.

[85]1900; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 2B; Enumeration District: 0023; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 3,. Accessed August 29, 2014).. http://www.ancestry.com.

[86]Land Mortgage Record #S, 2nd District Coahoma County, 6.