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COTTON- - -FAMILY- - -RELIGION

Our values are represented by:

COTTON symbolizes daily activities related to productivity.

FAMILY works together as the mainstay of life, and

RELIGION glues all parts together.

1880

The railroad track miles increased to 1,119 miles with nearly 2,000 Mississippians employed by railroad companies.


[1]

The first election held for county seat between Clarksdale and Friars Point.[2]

From

. . . the famous gunman and train robber, Jesse James was in Friars point in the 1880’s. He came into town and spent the night with the Methodist minister. Before that he played poker and had some drinks at the local saloon. The next morning he was gone. Actually, his identity was not revealed until several days later when the minister told Jesse James was there to rob Mr. Dickerson, and he had persuaded James to give up the idea. The minister said he convinced James that Mr. Dickerson was not a Yankee but a fine Southern gentleman. Jesse agreed to leave Mr. Dickerson alone provided the minister would not tell anyone in Friars Point of this visit until Jesse had several days head start on any posse that might try to catch him. The minister kept his word.[3]

BODENHEIMER

Marital status was single. 1880 Census says he is a German Peddler and 1900 Census says he is a Bavarian merchant. (1880/1900 Census) [NOTE: May be two different or the same individual as the statistics are the same. Note: listed on any other list, such as Memorial Board or Cemetery]

MANNHEIMER

ISAAC and N

Isaac was single store clerk, born in Germany in 1856s. “N” was a peddler, born in Germany in 1858. This was Beat 3, Coahoma County because Clarksdale was not incorporated.[4]

PACHTER

ROSA

Rosa, Jacob and Fannie Richb3rger's niece. She is fourteen years old and living with them.[5]

 

RICHBURGER

JACOB & FANNIE

Living in Beat 3. Both were born in Russia and list forty five years old in the 1880 Census.[6]

1881

HISTORICAL RUSSIAN DATES RE: POGOMS

TIME EVENT(S)

March 1: Alexander II assassinated by terrorists.

Articles published on how Jews were responsible for it.

Alexander III was anti-Jewish.

April 15: Pogroms started--Elizabethgrad in New Russia with Jewish population of 15,000 (eve of Greek Orthodox Easter).

April 23 Podol pogrom.

April 26: Kiev pogroms

April 29 Manifesto of "political safety" set up the pogroms.

April-May: 50 villages and town-lets in Kiev, Volhynia, Polia attacked.

Odessa pogrom

May: Jews expelled from Kiev, Moscow, Oryol and other places outside the Pale of Settlement.

May 18: Court case proved there would be no legal justice available.

June 30-May 1: Series of summer pogroms started in Pereyaslav, which harbored fugitives from Kiev.

Town-lets and villages in surrounding region followed these.

July 20-22: Nyezhin pogrom

March-Sept: Total of over 100 localities in South of Russia.

Ended up in Brody (Russian-Austrian Border).

French Alliance Israelite University supplied them with necessary means for continuing journey to USA.

December: Pogrom in Warsaw, Poland-1500 businesses, residences and houses of prayer destroyed.[7]

Hebrew Immigration Aid Society which started in 1881 and closed in 1883 was called Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society. it functioned under different names until 1902, but with the same mission: to assist Jewish immigrants. Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society was organized in 1902, which in its turn merged with Hebrew Sheltering House Association in 1909. Our records that are in possession of our organization started in 1909, however some files created as the result of appeals on Ellis Island could be traced to 1906.[8]

RICHBERGER

(1868. 1890. 1900. 1910)

GEORGE

In the 1800 census says he is a merchant and selling whiskey in Jonestown. The 1800 U. S. Census stated he was single man born in Russia in 1858 and working in Beat 3 as a merchant. The 1900 census says he is a Russian banker in Jonestown.[9]

1882

Most destructive flood in the history of the river up to this time. Again, the unorganized counties of Delta were entreated by the lower levee district to co-operate under one general system; again they declined.[10]

Clarksdale is incorporated. (1st time; see 1890) [11] Later, in 1882 the town was incorporated under its present name, Clarksdale. [12]

Disastrous overflows of the Mississippi occur. From 1876 to 1882, the area was without levees because in 1876 the upper Delta counties that formed a levee district of their own had gone bankrupt.[13]

BINDER

(1868. 1890. 1900 1910. 1920. 1930)

PHIL

Lived in Friars Point and paid personal property tax.[14]

BRENNER

(1890)

ABE, HARRIS, and CHARLES

Three brothers came to Coahoma County as carpetbaggers after the CivilWar.[15] These brothers knew the Jacobsons and encouraged them to come to the Delta Brenner and Jacobson Collection showed the following:[16]

CHARLES/CHARLEY

Charley immigrated in 1882: He was born in1869 in Russian.[17]

HARRIS

He was in Oxford in 1869. (Gilbert Jacobson email, 8/19/2001) Uncle Harris was the full brother of my grandmother’s mother, Hannah Brenner Jacobsohn. (Gilbert Jacobson email, 10/19/2001) Uncle Charlie was their half brother. (Gilbert Jacobson email, 10/19/2001) They had numerous siblings. (Gilbert Jacobson email, 10/19/01) My great-grandmother was the only one who did not immigrate to America. (Gilbert Jacobson email, 10/19/01) My grandmother came from Goldingen, Courland, which is now Kuldiga, Latvia. (Gilbert Jacobson email, 10/19/01) Her mother, Hannah Jacobsohn, who never came to America, had the maiden name Brenner. (Gilbert Jacobson email, 10/19/01)[18]

Uncle Harris married Mary, who was the niece of President Grover Cleveland. ( He was appointed post trader in Pawhuska, Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). He became very wealthy, owning a bank and oil interests. After his death, Aunt Mary came to visit my grandmother in Clarksdale. I am not sure that I have a copy of Uncle Harris’ two-page bio from Charlie Brenner in Jackson.[19]

KERSTINE

(1868. 1890. 1900 1910. 1920. 1930)

ADOLPH & MOLLY

December 15: Married: at Peabody Hotel, Memphis TN.[20] Corinne, my mother and this couple daughter-in-law added:

Rabbi Samfield married everybody in that area. He married everybody in my family. ) No, I mean, he married most of the people that moved to Clarksdale. I don’t know whom they used because the majority of them were Orthodoxy Jews and the Reform Jews went to Memphis.[21]

Moses Wronker (buried in Helena) with whom he was in business during the 1870's. Different stories about the marriage: Corinne said:

Adolph wife’s maiden name was Molly Brush. Molly was from Helena, Arkansas (10 miles from Jonestown).[22]

Forst said, “he believed Adolph was in Helena and worked in Helena. He lost his job as postmaster in Delta, MS; however, he is not listed as Postmaster. His brothers, Julius and Isidor are listed."[23]

Corinne said, “Isidor's mother wasn’t too friendly. I think it was a 'mismatched affair.' I think it was one of these situations where it was, 'I have a daughter, marry her.' It was a shotgun affair: they were mated or something through pictures.

Corinne, Selma, a granddaughter of Mollie and Adolph and Harold Forst information about Mollie and her family history includes these points:

1)    Mollie grew up in Helena, AR. She was born in Memphis.

2)    Corinne said: There were two families. Molly Brush’s mother was the first wife. Selma said Mollie told her that her father married two sisters. One of them died, and he married the other one to come in with the children. He had two children by the second wife.

3)    Mollie’s family was born in this country. I believe all her siblings were born in this country.”

4)    We don't know when her parents’ line immigrated to this country. We believe both Molly's parents were born in America. Forst could not prove that Mollie was born in Memphis. had . But Corinne said. “They were all born in Memphis, but the old man had settled in Helena. ] I don’t know if he was the first. I don’t know if his family came over here and brought him.

5)    The parent's marriage record in Memphis (Shelby County Archives was searched on 6/1989. The census records show: no Isaac Brush. 1880, & 1900 Arkansas census list Isaac in Arkansas.

6)    Mollie’s other sisters and brothers: Julia (Julius/Julian), Sally (Sarah), Minnie, Somber, and Zollie.[24] The second wife had Zollie and Minnie.

7)    Selma said, “Mama used to talk about her father, Isaac. He was living during the Civil War. Mollie talked about some Northern General who came by and told her father to shoe his horse. He didn't do it to suit him and he hit her father.”

Margie visited the Helena cemetery, and it is not that clear. Yetta, the second wife is buried there with a headstone. The first wife may be there, but no headstone was found. Marion Raymond (Helena resident) stated, “They moved some graves from another location to this Jewish cemetery. They were unable to distinguish who some of the individual grave sites were at the time. They have the original headstones, but who can't make out the script."[25]

Selma, who was raised by Mollie and Adolph and her aunt and three uncles, heard many stories from Mollie:

Molly wasn’t much of a politician: She could get into trouble like that. She just spoke her mind. Lilly had the problem bad. Another person Mama was friendly with was a fella named George Bellamy. He was some kind of City Clerk or something else and he was running for it. Mama stuck her neck out. She was sitting in a chair outside of Isidor’s store. Gary Banner was running for city clerk or something. I don’t know who was running against him but the fella who was running against him stopped and talked to her. She didn’t know who he was. She told him she sure hoped George Bellamy got it because he needed it. I remembered she was so embarrassed when she found out.”

Charlie was “Miss Pearl’s son. This was Miss Pearl and she was Guy Clark’s wife. I think they were all related to John Clark. Mrs. Pearl used to visit my grandmother [whom she called Mama ] When she had trouble [she would always tell how much she liked her coming to see her because she made her laugh. Everybody liked both women.

Mollie had a charge account at the grocery store. Mollie cooked lots of German sweet bread with raisins, cinnamon. She was known for her coffee and sponge cakes. Caesar's favorite was her chicken and duck.[26]

 

MARCUS

(1868, 1880, 1900 1910, 1920, 1930)

CHARLES and LENA

1900 Census showed Charles was born in 1867 in Russia. Beth Israel Cemetery stone said born 10/31/1871. He immigrated in 1882. Lena was born in 1879 in Russia. They married in 1898. Charles was a merchant in Jonestown (Beat 3). Their first son Nathan was born in 1899.

NOTE: The Clarksdale Jewish Cemetery tombstones show Charles was born in 1871 and Lena in 1881.[27]

CHILDREN

NATHAN EDWARD

MARTHA

MAURICE[28]

PACHTER

(1868. 1900 1910. 1920. 1930)

DAVID

In David Pachter’s unpublished manuscript he mentioned visiting the Richbergers who were related to him. But he did not go into a great deal of details as to how.[29]

SARAH

Mother of Anne Pachter (Mrs. David Salomon) lived with George Richberger.[30]

RICHBERGER

(1870. 1890.1900 1910)

GEORGE

Gertrude said, “George and Mary came from Poland, as she always was told this.”[31]

LAND INDEX & PERSONAL PROPERTY TAX LISTS

1 Fannie Richberger was grantor/grantee of Lot 14, Lot 1, Township 28, and Range 3 for Vi acre; other party was F.L. Potts.[32]

2. George Richberger, Fannie Richberger and A. Kerstine of Jonestown paid personal property tax.[33]

1883

The Yazoo and Mississippi Valley Railroad was a road paralleling the Mississippi River between Memphis and New Orleans. Like McComb's system, the Yazoo and Mississippi Valley eventually became a part of the Illinois Central system.[34]

Another serious flood of the upper Mississippi counties.[35]

JACOBSON***

(1868. 1890. 1900 1910. 1920. 1930)

HERMAN

Uncle Herman was Grandma’s brother.[36] Corinne Kerstine said he was Sam Jacobson and Tilly Jacobson’s father[37] 1900 U.S. Census stated: Herman was born in Russia in August, 1871. He married his wife, Lena in 1897. She was born in Russia in 1877. They were living in a rented house with H. Gordon, Lena's brother. In 1900, he was a dry goods merchant.[38]

Herman and Aunt Lena had a grocery. He was relatively religious, put on tefillah and davnen every morning, but kept his store open on the Sabbath.[39]

HERMAN'S CHILDREN

Sam Jacobson, married Teresa (Tessie) Weiss, Memphis, TN who was a first cousin to Corinne Kerstine. They had one child Phyllis. They lived in Memphis, Tennessee. Phyllis lived in Guam. We were all at the table having turkey when they called us and told us about Tessie dying at the B’nai B’rith Home. She died the same week that Nellie Jacobson Resnick died or the week after that. Phyllis had three children; Steve is the oldest, Leslie and Henry. She was married to Stan Rice.[40]

Tilly was Sam's sister who married a fellow by the name of Harry Gordon from Starkville. No, they did not have any children. Tilly spelled her name this way. [41](Gilbert Jacobson email, 10/19/2001)

HARRY

Grandpa also had a cousin who lived and was buried in Clarksdale. He was known as “Little Harry” Jacobson. He was born in Riga, Latvia. I never heard him referred to as Harris, only Harris A., or H.A. His Hebrew name - Tzvi Aharon. Yiddish name – Hirsch Aharon. He lived in Coahoma County and listed as a Russian merchant. He and my grandmother were cousins, hence the same last name. [42]

Grandpa was also on the Chevra Kadisha (Jewish Burial Society, purpose was to prepare children’s bodies for burial.) . He was not as religious as he opened his store on Saturday[43].

YETTA

Hebrew name: Gittel both Yiddish and English -Yetta was born October, 1869. Grandma is referred to as Jetta in census records. Yetta was born Kourland, a Scandinavian Province. She immigrated to American with Harris when she was young bride.[44]

Grandma was Orthodox. She observed a kosher Sabbath. She was active in the Chevra Kadisha. Grandma never worked on the Sabbath. Her close friends were Mrs. Abrams and Mrs. Binder.[45]

Originally, my grandparents lived in old Clarksdale. Grandpa built a house at 176 Catalpa. This was one of the first houses on the other side of the Sunflower. Grandma took care of the house and her nine children.

HARRY and JETTA's CHILDREN:

1) ELLA: married Phil Bacharach

2)                  ANNA: married Sam Panich. They built the house on the south side of 224 Cherry. They moved from Clarksdale to Kansas City when Harold Lester was 12.[46]

Gilbert added, “My Grandma [Yetta] had a brother, sister and numerous other relatives in Kansas City. Aunt Annie is buried in Clarksdale, where she spent the last few years of her life. Uncle Mike is buried in California. He was a big Al Jolson fan, and is buried in a nearby plot to Jolson. [47]

CHILDREN

(1) Harold, was my oldest 1st cousin. He was three years younger than my father. They were very close, like brothers. Harold lived in Kansas City.

(2)               Janice married Al Klugman and lived lived in Kansas City.

(3)               Sanford lived in California. [48]

3) BESSIE:

Married Abe Block. Mimi Jones told Margie her mother like the Block home on Second Street. They asked Abe to sell it. He did immediately and told Bessie after the sale.[49] I mentioned that I remember Abe Block was losing his vision during the 40s when author was a child.[50]

CHILDREN: Floyd and Shirley, who married and moved to Dallas. We do not know the cause of Floyd Block’s death when he was in his twenties. He was married and lived in Dallas. He has a daughter.[51]

Floyd’s oldest sister, Shirley, has two children. She was divorced and was married again to Orkin from Jackson; she lived in Dallas.[52]

4) SARAH

Sarah was born in Clarksdale.  She married Mike Greenfield.  Corinne said that Sarah moved away before she arrived in Clarksdale. ) They lived in a little town down by Rosedale, as well as Monroe, LA, New Madrid, MO, Shelby, MS, and Memphis.[53]

5) MINNIE:

The next child was Minnie, a daughter. ( Minnie married Sam Wolff. They had a store.[54]

CHILDREN of MINNIE & SAM WOLFF:

She had two daughters and a son. Jean/Ilene and Berkley. He lives in Millington and owns a carpeteria. She said that one of Minnie’s sons had converted to Christianity and changed his name. She also stated he kept in close touch with Michael Levine, MD, San Francisco, CA, as they an related. She could not explain how they are related.[55]

6) NELL:

She is six years older than Irvin. She married Sam Resnick. Nellie lived across the street from 224 Cherry Street in [a] house [setback and] next to the Labens’ home. Then they moved over on Lynn St. Then, during the 40s they built the house on Second Street. It was a nice home on the comer of Second St. Both Sam and Nellie worked together in their store on Delta Avenue until the 1954 fire. They opened a new store “Allen’s” in the 1950s and operated it together. Nellie divorced Sam after raising all their children. However, later on they remarried and are buried together in the Clarksdale cemetery.[56]

CHILDREN:

(1) MYRON: Married twice; he has 2 or 3 children.

(2) HARRIS ALLEN: He has 3 children. Myron and H. A. live in Northern Mississippi.

(3) JACK: Married a girl from Shreveport, Louisiana. He is a successful doctor.

(4) BONITA: Bonita lives in Atlanta; her name is Smith. Corinne played for the wedding. I do not know how many children she has as I never kept track of her.[57]

7) BEN: Never married. Served as the Deputy City Clerk for many years. Then, in 1948, took proprietorship of Jacobson Furniture Company because his mother, Yetta wanted him to be a business man. NOTE: See Jack

8) LOUIS: Never married.

9) IRVIN: My grandparents spent about 6 months in New York before moving to Clarksdale. Grandpa had a store in Glendora, MS, for a while, even though they lived in Clarksdale.He was not successful, and opened his shoe shop on Sunflower Avenue shortly afterwards.[58]

CHILD

Gilbert, who is their son is married with six children and lives in Passaic, NJ.

***NOTE: “Jacobson Stores Chapter” in Issaquena Avenue Memoirs (working title Book not published yet) I will forward copy upon request; see contact information on website.

 

KERSTINE

(1868, 1890,1900 1910 1920,1930)

ISIDOR

About 1882 Isidor Kerstine moved to Westburg, MS area, a town in Washington County that is not listed as a Mississippi town on the internet [59] While living there he served as Postmaster from January 26, 1883, to September 21, 1886. Then the post office was closed and transferred to Hollandale, eighty miles directly south of Clarksdale.[60]

Isidor’s estate papers show uncollected invoices which had a date overwritten as December 7, 1883, and was printed: “Jonestown, Miss, 1887—“, I. Kerstine”, “Goods, Groceries, Feed, Boots, Shoes and Hat (Frost2, 13) Other uncollected invoices, dated from May 10, 1883 to December 31, 1885 were printed with the heading: "I (or Isidor) Kerstine Westberg, Washington Co", "Dealer in General Merchandise". They were invoices without any preprinted headings that were dated between October 1884 and November 1886.[61]

PACHTER

(1868. 1890. 1900 1910. 1920. 1930)

HENRY

David Pachter wrote, “About 1883, Henry Pachter came south when he was about eight or ten years old. He joined his older brother, John, working in a store owned by their relative, George Richberger, in Rich, Mississippi”. Rich, later known as Lula, was a small community twenty miles north of Clarksdale. David continued, “My dad told tales: how every Saturday night they were held up at the store; and how he and Uncle John looked forward to the Saturday night fights.” Somehow they both moved to Webb, about seventy miles south. David added, “Uncle John was a cotton farmer, while my dad had a store and cotton farm.”[62]

RICHBERGER

(1868. 1890.1900 19101

GEORGE

Gertrude Nelson said,”Yes George was mayor of Jonestown in 1883. This is related to her father or grandfather being mayor of Jonestown. Only thing I remember is that he took me out and showed me on the sidewalk. His name was there. I was so little; I wouldn’t have known how to spell it.”[63]

Gertrude Nelson added, “I don’t know this for sure that is why I am saying I think this match [George and Mary] was made for them. At that time, it seems to me that was what was being done.”[64]

CHILDREN

1) ROSA 2) ABRAHAM “Abe”

3) DANIEL 4) HELEN

5) ISADOR [65]

1884

March 12: The Nation's first college for women, now known as the Mississippi University for Women, was established in Columbus.[66] At this time Coahoma County schools only went to the 10th grade. Families sent their daughters to this “finishing school” for etiquette and additional academic training. For example, Lenora Sacks and Rosa Kerstine were two Jewish girls who attended.

Louisville, New Orleans and Texas Railroad came to Clarksdale. It increased the property values as it brought new people to the area.[67]

December: Passenger train scheduled between Memphis and New Orleans.[68]

R. H. Wildberger tells what he found when he came in December to be the accountant for Major Fargasonat, the Sunflower Oil Mill Co.

When he asked why the Major had trouble keeping someone there, he was told there was no society there. It was in the woods practically. He said, “there was no place to board there but that the trains ran daily to and from Memphis.”

When he arrived he found Clarksdale consisted of a railroad eating house where the Delta Grocery & Cotton Co. [stood] on Sunflower Avenue, a saloon just back of it run by old man Fogarty with Phil Doan in charge of it, the oil mill and the Mobile & N.W. depot just south of the mill and a few houses north on Sunflower Avenue; a Chinaman of course, about where Landry’s store [was on Delta Avenue]. John Suddoth’s residence on the corner of Second Street (south) and his store on the north where Markham’s drug store [stood]. John Clark’s store was on the corner of First Street, and Morrison’s saloon was across the street near where the jail now stands. There wasn’t a house back or east of Sunflower Avenue then. It was a one street town facing the Sunflower River.

The first house built back of this street was Dr. Pierce’s where the Imperial Garage [stood]. George Epps and Bob Moore and Negroes owned the corner where the Planter’s National Bank [stood].[69] Some lots had been sold by Mr. John Clark from a preliminary map, but the first official map of the town was made in 1888 by W.L. Polk who found that the preliminary measurement of lots had been 10 feet over what constituted a block. So to correct this error an alley of 10 feet was necessary to count out, in block “C.”

The only stores then were James Suddoth’s, a Chinaman (whose name sounded like a bell ringing and who could always find change for our pay roll) and Mr. Clark’s store. I believe W. D. Boyd built a dwelling about this time on the corner of Third Street and Sunflower Avenue which later accommodated boarders. The only young lady in Clarksdale at that time was Miss Blanche Clark [who later married J.W. Cutrer.] Mrs. Hancock, widow of Russell Hancock lived jus across the river, and these two residences housed the only society in Clarksdale, except that which gathered at the two saloons, which of course was nondescript.[70]

LEVEE:

Three serious floods occurred during the year—something that never occurred before. The people of the upper and back counties finally put aside their little differences and in 1884 organized the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta Levee District.[71]

The record of the early struggles of this new levee district is too long for this manuscript. Strong men at the helm, supported by a determined constituency, ultimately succeeded in launching in its simple beginning the levee that was destined to become renowned.[72]

The first public school was a one-room frame building, with one teacher and an enrollment of eight students.[73]

Another serious flood occurred without levee protection.. The people of the upper and back counties finally put the'
difference aside and organized the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta Levee District. It was touch and go for many years but no b
in the main line occurred until as late as 1897. (Yazoo Mississippi Delta Levees, Sage & Baucom —Kaufman research)

KERSTINE

(1868. 1890. 1900 1910. 1920. 1930)

LAND PURCHASED IN ADOLPH AND MOLLY'S NAMES WITH PRIOR HISTORY

John Clark (founder of Clarksdale) owned everything in Clarksdale. (Selma, 21) That was when Clarksdale was a wilderness. Adolph bought land from John Clark before Clarksdale was incorporated as a township. (Margie, 3) According to Adolph's granddaughter, Selma, John Clark was very careful to whom he sold land. (Margie 1, 3) One criterion was that they did not own a saloon. (Margie 1, 3) Although Adolph had owned a saloon at one time in Jonestown, he was able to convince Clark to sell him the land on Delta Avenue. (Margie 1, 3, Selma 1, 20, 25) I don’t
know when Adolph moved to Clarksdale, but he began buying property at $0.25 an acre from John Clark.[74]

RICHBURGER

(1868,1890,1900 1910)

JACOB

Gertrude said Jacob died on a ship. He had five thousand dollars in a bank in Jonestown. The bank went busted. Five thousand dollars then was supposed to be a lot of money. She reported she never heard of him having children but reported his wife’s name was Anna? Margie found in the census “J Richberger”, who stated that his wife was “Fannie.” And, that Anna Pachter was a niece. Now, it may or may not have been related. It may have been someone else. Gertrude said she didn’t know anybody else though that was by the name of Richberger. Gertrude did not confirm anything related to the census.[75]

1885

FRANK

(1890. 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

HARRY AND SADIE FREUD:

Harry was born in Poland. in 1852 He immigrated in 1895. Sadie Katie Freud, who was also referred to as Sarah, was born in Poland in 1858. They married I 1875 in Poland. The 1900 U. S. Census shows they had six living children'; however, they moved to Clarksdale by the 1910 U. S.Census.

(1)             Annie born 1883, New York;

(2)             Lillie born 1886. Kentucky

(3)             Nellie Frank Baker born 1887 Kentucky

(4)             Ida Frank Baker born 1888 Kentucky

(5)               Joseph born 1890 Kentucky moved to Clarksdale and operated a mercantile business on Sunflower Avenue. Wife was Fannie Frank.

(6)             Isadore (“Izzy') Born 895 Arkansas[76]

KERSTINE

(1868,1890,19001910, 1970 1910)

CHILDREN

Corinne said, “Molly and Adolph had lost their first child. No, I do not know the name of that child. The oldest child died at one year old.” Rosa, the oldest daughter was born during this year. The 1900 Census did not confirm this because the record said five children were born and five children were living.[77]

MARKS

(1868. 1890. 1900 1910)

LEOPOLD/PAULINE

Married by Rabbi Samfield to Leopold on 3/17/1885.[78]

1886

The Kansas City, Memphis and Birmingham Railroad, incorporated in 1886, traversed the northern portion of the state and included nearly one hundred fifty miles of tracks.[79]

Levee Board moved from Tunica County to Clarksdale. (Sage & Baucom)

COHEN

(1868, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

CHARLES:

Charles was born in Russia in 1891 and immigrated in 1886. He married Mollie (Mary) Marcus who was _____ Marcus's daughter in 1898. She was born in Coahoma in 1874 in Russia. They lived in Lula.[80]

Budgy Hirsberg commented during his interview, “Charles Cohen from Coahoma was very friendly with my family. Rebecca and David use to come to school in Clarksdale. There was another daughter that married a Goldsmith from Helena.”[81]

CHILDREN:

(1)              SADIE born 1899 Mississipppi

(2)              REBECCA born inn 1900 Mississippi

(3)              HYMAN born in 1902 Mississippi

(4)              SALLY

(5)              DAVID

Charles Cohen was not related to Sam or Fred Cohen.[82]

KERSTINE

(1868, 1890 1900 1910 1920,1930)

The Coahoma County Land Deed Index Records shows property transactions between Adolph and Molly in 1886. Adolph put land deeds in Molly's name almost immediately upon marriage.[83] Although both Corinne, Isidor (Margie's father) and Selma reported that Adolph was the second person to buy property in Clarksdale from John Clark, Margie was unable to find the Land Deed to confirm this. In response to this trying to help Margie find the deed, Corinne said, “I have no idea what year he bought the land from Clark.”[84]

Adolph started in the whiskey business, but changed to general merchandise.[85] This is controversial because Selma talked about Adolph serving free liquor to his customers. In those days, this was a form of advertising and competition. She also said John Clark did not sell property to individuals who SOLD liquor, except for Adolph.[86] Not selling, but giving away the liquor might explain how he qualified for the land he bought from Clark.

1887

The Grange disbanded this year. However, it left behind the older cemetery in Clarksdale. After the Hall was built, they purchased additional land by each member paying $25. A deed was given to that member for a lot in the yard to be used for burial purpose. Even later additional land was purchased increasing the cemetery and the old hall turned into burial lots[87].

Yazoo & MS Valley Railroad ran through Jonestown; Golden decade of Friars Point [88]

New Coahomian paper started.

Another election held for county seat; Clarksdale loses again to Friars Point.[89]

 

KERSTINE

(1868. 1890. 1900 1910. 1920.1930)

MAX

The family returned to Clarksdale prior to January 16, 1887 because the second child, Max, was the first Jewish boy born in Coahoma County.[90] Corinne said that Max was not creative. However, Margie remembers as a child Corinne always commented on Shankerman’s well-dressed men’s wear windows when she passed the store. One of Max's responsibility was doing the windows when he worked for Shankerman. At that time, she told Margie that Max was a very creative person; however, later during these interviews she indicated a change of opinion. He also attempted art when he was younger; however, Caesar did the colored pencil drawing of Margie has in the family scrapbook.[91]

ISIDOR (Adolph's Brother)

In April of 1887 Isidor borrowed $1531 from S. Lehman and Sons, assigning his house and lot in Hollandale as collateral. Then on July 9, 1887 (about 13 days before his death) he borrowed an additional $500 from Lehman & Sons using a future 50 bails of cotton and his 4 mules as collateral. His estate's gross worth was about $2700. Frost concluded Isidor did not plan on dying, but Frost could not prove that he was killed.[92]

Uncollected invoices show one invoice printed: "Jonestown, Miss, 1887—", "I. Kerstine", "Goods, Groceries, Feed, Boots, Shoes and Hats". He may have been the Postmaster at the Hollandale/Westberg area since his estate indicated receipts of $13.25 for Postage stamps and $ 19-$ 15 from the Postal department.

The question of why Isidor died has not been answered as of 2015. The cause of death, as given in the newspaper article, was hematoma—blood in the urine. Many of the relatives have been told he was killed in a hold-up on his store. A reference to his death is found in the Greenville Times (Mississippi of July 23, 1887.)[93]

"Died, Mr. Isidor Kerstine, merchant at Hollandale, died at 2 o'clock this morning of hematuria. He will be buried here tomorrow morning at 9 o'clock." Buried in Old Hebrew Cemetery, Greenville, MS (currently a park) of the date shown.

From the estate papers it is concluded that that there was no widow and that he was not sick long. The estate papers state that and that he died without a will. Adolph takes over his estate, which is on file at theWashington County Court House in Greenville. They indicate that Adolph was the executor of his estate, that a lot in the Hebrew Congregation Cemetery was purchased, and that the funeral directors, Snowberger & Brown, were paid to bury Isidor. The estate was closed in January 1892, some five years after his death in July 23, 1887).[94]

 

RICHBERGER

(1868.1890. 1900. 1910)

ROSA

My mother was Rosa Richberger. The family did not come from Helena, but Rosa went to school there, Gertrude said.[95]

1888

County Jail at Friars Point completely destroyed by fire. 5 prisoners bum to death and county records saved (1st floor) with great difficulty.[96]

Clarksdale first bank organized with John Clark, President.[97]

BAKER

(1890 1900 1910 1920,1930)

LIFE IN RUSSIA:

Julia Belle Baker Glassman provided this information which combines a home interview and information she had written to keep in her genealogical collection:

The village Daddy (Morris Baker) came from was about the size of Clarksdale, and the village [Shkudvile, Russia] where Cousin Celia Friedman was born was about the size of Jonestown--very close to each other and close to the German border. [When] the German Jews came over they settled in the big cities like Memphis. The Russians and Polish Jews went to the smaller towns. My father told me…the reason…he and my Uncle could speak German as well as Yiddish and Hebrew, because they are all similar. He said sometimes the German government took over their village. If the German people got mad at the German government, they would come over to their village. If the Germans came into their village then the Russians would go to the German villages. They were going back and forth. So, lots of time there was Germans living in their village. That is how they got to know German.

Daddy was born to Grandfather Ora Baker and his second wife. Daddy had one older sister and a younger sister, and also a younger brother named David, who died as a child. Cousin Celia's mother and our Grandfather [Ora} were sister and brother. Her mother died when she was a little girl leaving her with a father and three older brothers. Her father said he would never marry again unless he could find a [Rivka who did not have any children from a previous marriage and also could not have children ][98]. He found the right one when Cousin Celia was 15 year. [Celia] learned to do a lot of things such as knitting and hand work when she went to Daddy’s house and learned from his sister [who] would buy her supplies in their town and go home and make her own stockings, sweaters, etc. Grandmother Baker was a baker. I thought Daddy [Morris] was kidding me when he used to say my ancestors were bakers. That is why our name was Baker! Grandmother was a marvelous baker, and I know that Daddy often spoke of the black bread she made.…Grandfather worked in the bakery with her. They lived behind the bakery.

When Grandfather[Ora] came to America he was a peddler. When he went to South Africa he bought horses for the tsar of Russia. Ora was on board the ship with Jerome’s Magdovitz’s grandfather when he was a young single man. They went back to Russia and found out they lived close by. Ora told them about his two beautiful daughters and invited them to come to meet them. So, they did, and they both married these girls. In Shkudvile, Magdovitz married Fannie, and Mr. Taub married Evie. Magdovitz went to Connersville, Pennsylvania. Fannie looked a great deal like Joy Magdovitz Bearman [Memphis, TN].[99]

Grandmother was a very religious woman. She prayed three times a day. Daddy went to Hebrew School in their town and as you know he learned arithmetic and other subjects there, too. He was now allowed to go to the public schools. Uncle Harry spoke good German, and Cousin Celia said he might have learned it from neighbors, mixing his Yiddish in. These neighbors moved to the towns from Germany.

Daddy’s older sister, who looks just like him in the picture we have in a big album, was a good seamstress as well as being good with her hands in doing handwork. The picture shows her at a sewing machine.

The last time Grandfather was in America, was before Alma [my sister] was born Alma… [She] was named after him. Some of the pictures I have were made in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Cousin Celia said the Frank sisters (Mother’s maiden name, Ida Frank Baker) loved to dance and went to dances in the different towns. She always said Daddy [Morris] was a handsome man and she said Sammy [brother] looks just like him.

First Trip to American

When Morris was a very small baby about 1888, Ora and Frank, an older son who may have been in his 30s and was unmarried, came to America. Julia added, “I think they came because of conscription. They didn’t want their sons to go into the Czar’s army.” When Ora and Frank arrived in New York, they got in touch with some distant relatives. They told them to go to the Jewish Welfare who gave them a back pack from which to sell little items. They started traveling across the country.

The two men were headed for Memphis; then, Clarksdale where Max Friedman lived. Along the way, Ora said: “Look they are working on the railroad.” They were putting ties on the railroad beds. So he said: “Look we can get room and board and work our way across.” So, they did. They worked their way to Memphis. From Memphis they went to Clarksdale for a few days. Julia did not know what route was used; however they walked along the railroad track line and they were hired along the way. They got to Memphis. They first settled in Dublin to sell mules and horses or mules and cattle.[100]

Ora stayed with Frank until he had a comfortable place to stay and a job; then, he returned to his Russian family.[101]

FRIEDMAN

(1900, 1910, 1920)

Charles and Eda

Charles Friedman was born in Russia in 1845. He immigrated to Philadelphia in 1888 and was living in Clarksdale by 1900. He married an Eda born in Russia in 1850. ather and son established a small grocery store.[102] They were married in Russia in 1865 and the first son was born in Russia. Charles was a retail merchant by 1900.[103]

Children:

1)                 Max Morris (son) born in 879

2)                 Rachel born in 1876

3) Bell Binder (Rachel's daughter) born in 1898

4) Sam (son) born in 1889 in Pennsylvania[104]

GENTSBURGER

Gentsburger was Postmaster in Friars Point.[105]

LEVINE

(1900, 1910, 1920)

Russian Jewish families had to protect their second, third sons from being conscripted into the Russian army. The Russian army would take these boys and put them on the front line of firing without guns or training. Most Jewish genealogists know many young Jewish boy disappeared and showed up in America. The families found childless couples because the first son was not eligible for conscription. Morris Baker told Julia a Shepp family took Charles Levine’s father.[106]

RICHBERGER

(1868, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920)

GEORGE

From 1888 to 1890 Postmaster Archives of February 1890, shows George Richberger is listed in Rich as Postmaster as of 1888. Richberger’s store, a flag stop, became the town’s name, “Rich.” Gertrude said that I am just saying what I have always been told since I have been little. Rich, Mississippi, was named for my family.[107]

ABRAHAM

Abraham “Abe” Richberger married but Gertrude did not know her name because he was much older. His daughter Rosa Estella Bloom lived in Memphis.[108]

From 1888 to 1890 Postmaster Archives of February 1890, shows George Richberger is listed in Rich as Postmaster as of 1888. Richberger’s store, a flag stop, became the town’s name, “Rich.” Gertrude said that I am just saying what I have always been told since I have been little. Rich, Mississippi, was named for my family.[109]

SACK

(1868,1890,1900 1910. 1920.1930)

SAMUEL G.

Russian merchant born May, 1862 immigrated to US; however, the dates are contradictory: one said 1852 and another 1888. He first lived in Beat 4, not Clarksdale; but later moved to Delta Avenue Leflore Street. He listed dry goods merchant as his occupation in 1900 census.[110]

Sam Sack was a bachelor brother of Aaron Sack. He had a lot of money.[111]

1889

Construction work on the Riverside Division of Louisville, New Orleans and Texas Railroad enters the county from the south and is completed by way of Friars Point, to a junction with the main line at Coahoma.[112]

April 6: Clarksdale fire on Sunflower destroyed all stores. Newspaper article:

"CLARKSDALE FIRE: The Little Town of Clarksdale a Mass of Ruins”:

Clarksdale, a thriving little place of a thousand inhabitants, about fifteen miles from this point on the L. N. O. & T. railroad, was the scene on last Saturday morning of the most destructive fire ever know in its history. Nearly the entire business portion was destroyed. The origin of the fire is unknown. A Negro hostler was burned to death in the stable of C. W. McCroy, together with several horses and the most plausible theory as to its origin is that some hay among which the Negro was sleeping caught fire from a spark from the Negro’s pipe and he being in a half drunken stupor at the time was suffocated before he could make his escape. Others are of the opinion that it was of incendiary origin. A large buggy house was blown up with powder in order to prevent the flames from spreading beyond the business portion town. All of the buildings were framed and burned like tinder. The merchants [have] ordered thirty carload of bricks, and they will begin work of rebuilding at once. C. W. McCroy, who had a flourishing livery business, lost everything and no insurance. J. P. Riley, a watchmaker also lost everything. Charles Graham, who had one of the finest saloons in the county, lost everything and no insurance. Below we give the official list with amount lost and covered by insurance:

NAME

Printing Office

A. Buford

B. Clark

T. Ferguson

J. Fisher

F. Graham

& Kahn

Kerstine

W. McCroy

. P. McReilly

& Co.

. L. Simmons & Co.

A. Suddoth & Co.

. Ruby.M. Suddoth

. H. Wildberger

. M. J. Yancy

 

This newspaper article was also found about the same fire:

February 2; Fully quoted from newspaper article: SUNDAY’S BLAZE

Over Fifty Thousand Dollars Consigned to Ashes.

Sunday morning a little before 5 o’clock fire was discovered in the rear of Bacot & Co. dry goods department, in the heart of the business section of the town. By the time a few persons arrived and an organized effort was made the two story brick building occupied by Bacot & Co. and Engler & Co. was a mass of flames. The water supply having to be brought from the river slow progress was made and for a time it looked like the whole business part of town would be destroyed. After an hour of hard fighting the fire was checked at Campbell’s store on the north and Lawler’s frame store building on the south.  The section burned embraces seven brick store houses with losses and insurance….[the Jewish merchants involved included: (1)] L. Bodenheimer, total loss $5,000; insured $3,500(2) A. Kerstine building and stock, $4,000, insured $2,500; (3) L. Kaufman, tailor, total loss, $3,000; insured, $2.000…

The origin of the fire is unknown. It started in the rear room used as a kind of ware room by W. Bacot & Co in which there had been no fire up any kind.

Negotiations have already begun for the rebuilding of the entire block and work will no doubt begin at an early date.[113]

 

 

***NOTE: Jacobson Stores Chapter in Issaquena Avenue Memoirs (working title)

Book not published yet. I will forward copy upon request; see contact on website.



[1] McLemore, Richard Aubrey. A History of Mississippi. Vol. I and II. Hattiesburg, MS: University & College Press of Mississippi, 1973, 602.

[2] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[3] Dabbs, Miriam. Here's Clarksdale, 1974 May-June, pp. 22, 23.

[4] United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.” Year: 1880; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 645; Family History Film: 1254645; Page: 391A; Enumeration District: 099; mage: 0203, 1, Line 13, 14. [Note: Page completed on June 13, 1880,] Accessed June 6, 2015. http://www.Ancestry.com.

[5] Rosa: United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Search.ancestry.com.” Year: 1880; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 645; Family History Film: 1254645; Page: 391B; Enumeration District: 099; Image: 0204, 2, Line 18. Accessed July 26, 2015. http://search.ancestry.com.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Dudnow, Semen M. History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the Earliest times until the Present Day. New York: KTAV Publ. House, 1975. (This is the right author, but not sure this is the exact book because it was at the Jackson, MS Public Library in 1993.

[8] Valery Bazarov, HIAS Director Location and Family History Service, Tel: 212-613-1409, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

[9] United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.” Year: 1880; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 645; Family History Film: 1254645; Page: 391A; Enumeration District: 099; mage: 0203, 1, Line 39. Accessed June 13, 2015. http://www.Ancestry.com. 1900; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 3B; Enumeration District: 0023; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 5, Line 87. Accessed August 29, 2014). http://www.ancestry.com. Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with transcript with author, March 16, 1995.

[10] Kaufman, Irwin Research Collection, “Points of Interest”.

[11] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[12] Beth Israel & 75th Year to Be Celebrated." Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi), October 10, 1969, Page 3, Column 1-6.

[13] Kaufman, Irwin Research Collection, “Points of Interest”. Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[14] Coahoma County Tax, Roll #29, Mississippi Archives, Jackson, MS.

[15] Jacobson, Edith interviews Jacobson, Edith personal and phone interviews with transcripts with author, 1993-2015, Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection.

[16] Jacobson, Gilbert. "Chapter Re: Brenner." E-mail. January 7, 2015.

[17] United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 806; Page: 24B; Enumeration District: 0026; FHL microfilm: 1240806, 47, Line 69. Accessed June 15, 2015, http://www. ancestry.com.

[18] Jacobson, Gilbert. "Chapter Re: Brenner." E-mail. January 7, 2015.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Samfield, Rabbi Sam. Marriage Registry: 1876-1884,, Temple Israel Archives, Memphis, TN, 79.

[21] Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcripts with author, Kerstine's Family Album's Collection..

[22] Ibid.

[23] Frost, Harold interview and several phone conversation between January, 1985-1994.

[24] Frost, Harold interview and several phone conversation between January, 1985-1994. Corinne Kerstine interviews and transcripts with Harold Forst, Jackson, MS., December, 1985. Kerstine's Family Album's Collection. Weinberger, Selma home interviews with transcripts with author, 1987-2001.

[25] Raymond, Marion, Helena, Arkansas interview with author, April, 1999.

[26] Weinberger, Selma home interviews with transcripts with author, 1987-2001.

[27] Franklin, Lynn. "Clarksdale Jewish Cemetery Burials." Beth Israel Cemetery. Accessed October 11, 2015. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~ssjdb/Clarksdale.htm.

[28] “1910 United States Federal Census.” Year: 1910; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 19A; Enumeration District: 0029; FHL microfilm: 1374750Year: 1910; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 19A; Enumeration District: 0029; FHL microfilm: 1374750, 36, Lines 43-48. Accessed November 1, 2015). http://www. ancestry. com.

[29] Pachter, John. David Pachter's Memoirs. Greenwood MS: Greenwood Public Library, 2000.

[30] United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 3B; Enumeration District: 0023; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 5. Line 69. Accessed June 13, 2015). http://www.ancestry. com.

[31] Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with transcript with author, March 16, 1995.

[32] Coahoma County Tax, Roll #29, Mississippi Archives, Jackson, MS.

[33] Ibid.

[34] McLemore, Richard Aubrey. A History of Mississippi. Vol. II. Hattiesburg, MS: University & College Press of Mississippi, 1973, 251, 510-511, 603.

[35] Weeks, Linton. “Machine in the Garden,” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (Clarksdale, Mississippi): Carnegie Public Library, 1982, 64.

[36] Jacobson, Gilbert. "Genealogical Data." E-mail message to author. October 19, 2001.

[37] Kerstine, Corinne interviews with transcripts with author, Kerstine's Family Album's Collection. Franklin, Lynn Aubrey. "Beth Israel Cemetery." 2008. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb. ancestry.com/~ssjdb/Clarksdale.htm.

[38] United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 806; Page: 17A; Enumeration District: 0025; FHL microfilm: 1240806, 33. Accessed June 27, 2015. http://www.ancestry.com.

[39] Jacobson, Gilbert. "Genealogical Data." E-mail message to author. October 19, 2001.

[40] Kerstine, Corinne interviews with transcripts with author, Kerstine's Family Album's Collection.

[41] Ibid. Jacobson, Gilbert. "Genealogical Data." E-mail message. October 19, 2001.

[42] Ibid.

[43] Ibid.

[44] Ibid. Clarksdale Library Obituary Scrapbook.

[45] Jacobson, Gilbert. "Genealogical Data." E-mail message. October 19, 2001.

[46] Kerstine, Corinne interviews with transcripts with author, Kerstine's Family Album's Collection.

[47] Jacobson, Gilbert. "Genealogical Data." E-mail message. October 19, 2001.

[48] Ibid

[49] Jones, Mimi Interview with author, August, 2005.

[50] Kerstine, Corinne interviews with transcripts with author, Kerstine's Family Album's Collection.

[51] Ibid.

[52] Ibid.

[53] Kerstine, Corinne interviews with transcripts with author, Kerstine's Family Album's Collection.

[54] Jacobson, Gilbert. "Genealogical Data." E-mail message. October 19, 2001.

[55] Ibid.

[56] Ibid.

[57] Ibid.

[58] Ibid.

[59] Frost, Harold interview and several phone conversation between 1985-1994.

[60] "Driving Directions-Hollandale to Clarksdale, MS." MapQuest Maps - Driving Directions - Map. Accessed June 28, 2015. http://www.mapquest.com/directions.

[61] Frost, Harold interview and several phone conversation between 1985-1994.

[62] Pachter, John. David Pachter's Memoirs. Greenwood MS: Greenwood Public Library, 2000, 4.

[63] Nelson, Gertrude Friedman interview with transcript, March 16, 1995. Kerstine's Family Album's Collection.

[64] Ibid.

[65] Ibid.

[66] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[67] "Clarksdale, The Queen City; Its History and Promise for Future." Clarksdale Press Register, Clarksdale Public Library Scrapbook) (Clarksdale, Mississippi), August 26, 1926.

[68] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[69] Ibid.

[70] Jenkins, Anona, comp. “Early Days in Clarksdale as Witnessed by R.H. Wildberger, Makes Most Interesting Story, 1/28/25" Vol. 1, 6. Clarksdale Scrapbook Collection. Clarksdale, Mississippi: Clarksdale Public Library.

[71] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[72] Kaufman, Irwin Research Collection, “Points of Interest,”

[73] Ibid.

[74] Weinberger, Selma home interviews with transcripts, 1987-2001.

[75] Nelson, Gertrude Friedman interview with transcript, March 16, 1995. Kerstine's Family Album's Collection.

[76] “1900 United States Federal Census for Harry Frank.” Year: 1900 Census: Independence, Lee, Arkansas; Roll: 65; Page: 6B; Enumeration District: 0045; FHL microfilm: 1240065; p. 12-accessed 4/6/2015, 12, Lines 75-82. Accessed April 16, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry. com.

[77] Kerstine, Corinne interview with transcripts with author, Kerstine's Family Album's Collection. United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 11B; Enumeration District: 0025; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 22, Line 68-74.Accessed July 5, 2015. http://www.ancestry.com.

[78] Samfield, Rabbi Sam. Marriage Registry: 1885 Temple Israel Archives, Memphis, TN.

[79] McLemore, Richard Aubrey. A History of Mississippi. Vol. I and II. Hattiesburg, MS: University & College Press of Mississippi, 1973, 604-605.

[80] “1910 United States Federal Census for Charles Cohen.” Year: 1910; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 2B; Enumeration District: 0028; FHL microfilm: 1374750, 4, Lines 11-15. Accessed January 10, 2016. http://interactive. ancestry.com.

Bloom, Julius intereview and transcript with author, November 18, 1993.

[81] Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgy” interview and transcripts with author, April 27, 1994.

[82] Kline, Aaron, Adele Cohen Kline , and Corinnne Kerstine interview and transcript with authori, Novermber 28, 1993

[83] Land Deed Index 1840-1890 Section, MS Achieves, Coahoma County, "K" page,

[84] Kerstine, Corinne interview with transcripts with author, Kerstine's Family Album's Collection.

[85] Frost, Harold interview and several phone conversation between January, 1985-1994.

[86] Weinberger, Selma home interviews with transcripts with author, 1987-2001.

[87] Mosley, Louis, and Heaton, “Points of Interest,” Kaufman, Irwin Research Collection. (Memphis: Temple Israel Archives)

[88] Weeks, Linton.”Home Sweet Coahoma,” and “The Golden Age of Friars Point,” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (P.O. Box 280, Clarksdale 38614): Carnegie Public Library, 1982, 14, 26.

[89] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[90] Ibid. Weeks, Linton.”The Gay Nineties,” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (P.O. Box 280, Clarksdale 38614): Carnegie Public Library, 1982, 99. Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcripts with author, 1977-1998. Kerstine's Family Album's Collection.

[91] Kerstine, Corinne interviews and transcripts with author, 1977-1998.

[92] Frost, Harold interview, several phone conversation and transcript between January, 1985-1994.

[93] Ibid. Invoices in Kerstine's Family Album's Collection.

[94] Ibid. Invoices in Kerstine's Family Album's Collection.

[95] Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview and transcript with author, March 16, 1995, Kerstine's Family Album's Collection.

[96] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[97] Ibid.

[98] Reporter. "Ora Baker Interview." (Memphis, Tennessee), August 1, 1916. [Note: Memphis 1916 publications: Memphis Press Scimitar, Commercial Appeal, Hebrew Watchman.]

[99] Glassman, Julia Baker interviews with transcripts with author, 2003-2011. Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection. Glassman, Julia Belle Baker. "Information on Morris Baker." By Julia Belle Baker Glassman. Glassman Family Collection.

[100] "Correction of Website." Julia Belle Baker Glassman to Margery Kerstine. February 16, 2001. Margery Kerstine Collection, Claremont, California.

[101] Reporter. "Ora Baker Interview." (Memphis, Tennessee), August 1, 1916. [Note: Memphis 1916 publications: Memphis Press Scimitar, Commercial Appeal, Hebrew Watchman.]

[102] McKeown, Mrs. J. L., Canvasser. “Assignment #3,” WPA Historical Research Project of Coahoma County. Clarksdale, Mississippi. July 15, 1936.

Weeks, Linton.”The Gay Nineties,” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (P.O. Box 280, Clarksdale 38614): Carnegie Public Library, 1982, 92.

United States. National Archives. Washington, D C. “Interactive.ancestry.com ” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 14A; Enumeration District: 0025; FHL microfilm: 124080, 26, Lines 5 98-100, 27, Lines 1-3. Accessed August 30, 2015 http://www.ancestry.com.

[103] “1900 United States Federal Census for C Friedman.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 13B; Enumeration District: 0025; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 26, Lines 98-100; 27, Lines 1-3. Accessed December 12, 2015. http://interactive. ancestry.com.

[104] Ibid.

[105] U.S. Postmasters Registry , Clarksdale Mississippi Room, Clarksdale Public Library. Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with transcript with author, March 16, 1995. Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection.

[106] Glassman, Julia Baker interviews with transcripts with author, 2003-2011. Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection.

[107] Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with transcript with author, March 16, 1995. Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection.

[108] Ibid.

[109] Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with transcript with author, March 16, 1995. Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection.

[110] United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Search.ancestry.com”: Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 13B; Enumeration District: 0025; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 6, Line 77. Accessed July 25, 2015. http://www.ancestry.com.

[111] Bloom, Julian, interview with transcript with author, November 18, 1993.

[112] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[113] Clarksdale Public Library Scrapbook Collection, comp. "Sunday's Blaze: Over Fifty Thousand Dollars Consigned to Ashes." Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale Mississippi).