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COTTON- - -FAMILY- - -RELIGION

Our values are represented by:

COTTON symbolizes daily activities related to productivity.

FAMILY works together as the mainstay of life, and

RELIGION glues all parts together.

1890

   This footbridge across the Sunflower River itself came before the 2nd Street and Oakhurst Street Bridges. It connected the east and west sides. (Courtesy of the Carnegie Public Library) 
 Figure 1

January 13: John Marshall Stone, who served as governor of Mississippi for 14 years longer than any other man, was inaugurated for his second term.

[1]

September 3: Census population was 781.[2]

The railroad track miles increased to 2,333 miles.[3]

Yazoo-Mississippi Valley railroad line is opened between Clarksdale and Minter City by way of Tutwiler.[4]

Clarksdale is reincorporated. Brick structures replaced local business section.[5]

March & April: The Mississippi River went on a rampage. The levee broke in numerous places. Greenville, and other localities were inundated. The river and the weather were not the only source of violence.[6]

July 30: A delegate to the Constitutional Convention from Coahoma County shot and killed the editor of the Friars Point Coahomaian in the sheriff's office at Friars Point, because attacks made against him in the paper. (All of the foregoing items are from the files of the Memphis Avalanche.)

The United States Census of 1890 recorded that Mississippi had 1,289,600 inhabitants of whom 744,749 were black, and 544,851 were white.[7]


Figure 2: 1890s Main Street, Clarksdale ((Courtesy of the Carnegie Public Library)

As the year 1890 dawned, Clarksdale's residents rebuilt the city's business district in the wake of the damaging fire occurring the previous April (see 1889 in 1880 ). Alarmed by the devastating blaze, the city board promptly set about shaping a new building code to replace all structures with bricks. Within the space of a year eighteen brick structures replaced the numerous frame structures claimed by fire.[8]

ALPERN

(1910, 1920, 1930)

ARTHUR

Arthur was born in 1875 and immigrated from Russua in 1890.  In 1890 he was a clerk living next door to Charles Marcus.[9] Budgy Hirsberg reported, “Abe Alpern from Rich worked for my father. Alvin Fink described him as a short, fat man.[10]

The 1910 Census says he married in Beka in 1902 and living in Coahoma. She was born in 1880 and immigrated from Russia in 1893. They married in 1902.[11]

CHILD

Bessie Alperin (Rudolph Landau)[12]



BRENNER

Court Case: On March 4, 1890, Brenner & Gaisman bought out Kahn, paying him for the goods on hand. At the time no certain goods purchased in the name of the firm by Kahn were in transit. This would have occurred after the death of Greenbaum,. Brenner & Gaisman agreed to take them. Afterwards, these goods arrived, they took them as part of the purchase, executing to Kahn a note therefore on May 15, 1890 for $1,517.33 payable to Greenbaum & Kahn, whose debts had been contracted after the death of Greenbaum. They sued against Kahn, and garnished Brenner & Gaisman. The garnishees answered, denying any indebtedness to Kahn, and their answers were traversed. The plaintiffs in attachment recovered judgments against Kahn, and afterwards the trial of the garnishment issue was resolved with judgment against the garnishee.[13]

COHEN

(1868, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

CHARLES

July 29, 1890: Charles contracted with William B. Brooks to employ him as a clerk in Coahoma saloon.[14]

KERSTINE

(1868, 1880, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ADOLPH

July 11, 1890: Trust Deed granted to Mrs. L. D. Anderson for property along Sunflower Avenue. Clarksdale Letter from Trustee on 3/7/1893 said transaction satisfied in full.[15]

LANDAU

(1900 1910, 1920, 1930)

MAX, MOSE, BERTHOD, RUDOLPH

Corinne said: The [brothers, Max, Mose, Berthod and Rudolph] arrived about the late 1890s. These brothers were merchants who had their store on Yazoo Street. Corinne added, “

I do not know when they married and brought their wives to Clarksdale. I know one went to Memphis, and Max and Mose came to Clarksdale. I don't know where they came from or where they were born in Germany. Corinne believed Max and his brother Moses arrived together as bachelors and married later.[16]

 

MOSE

Corinne said,

Mose married Minnie Brush, Molly Brush Kerstine’s sister. Minnie and Mose had one daughter, Gertrude, who married Stanley Allenberg, Memphis, TN.Later in life Uncle Mose married Jenny Small. He died in Clarksdale or he was living in Marks because he had a store in Marks. He also worked for a man by the name of Kress as he had given up his own store years before.[17]

In the 1910 U. S. Census Mose was born in German in 1874. He immigrated in 1 890 36 years old and married to Minnie in Memphis in January, 1901.[18] Minnie, his wife was born in Arkansas in 1875 and his daughter Gertrude was born in 1902. Yetta Brush, his mother-in-law was living with them,. She was born in Germany in 1833 and was listed as a widower.[19]

Uncle Mose was a little taller [than Max]. He wore glasses. He was a jolly man, amiable man, well liked in the gentile community as well as the Jewish community. He had a haberdashery named Landau's in the middle of Yazoo Street when I came to town. He had help in the store.Carly, Max’s wife, helped him run it. They had medium prices for the average man. Yes, he liked good music I don’t know about sports. They traveled a lot in the early days.[20]

RICHBURGER

(1868, 1880, 1900, 1910)

DANIEL WEBSTER “DAN”

Son of Mary and George Richberger. Dan was born in July, 1890 in Mississippi.[21]

SILVERSON

ISRAEL/SAMUEL

1900 census showed that Mary immigrated in 1886 and lived in Evansville prior to their marriage. Israel arrived in 1890. The date of his move to Friars Point is unknown. They married in 1899. Mary Silverson and Mrs. Jacob Hirsberg were schoolmates. Mama had nothing to do with Mary Silverson’s marriage, though. She was from Evansville, too. No matchmaking or contact associated. The children were born between 1900 and 1909.[22]

1891

County political leaders convene in Memphis to settle county seat question.[23]

HIRSH

(1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

SIMON

January 15: Related to suit Emil Kahn’s complainant against Ethel Greenbaum (defendant. John A. Suddath, Special Commissioner, sold land (Lot 15 and 16, Block B, Clarksdale, MS) to Simon Hirsh, Max Lowenstein and Sol. W. Levy for $2500.[24]

JACOBSON

(1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

HARRIS & YETTA

Harris Brenner, came to the Delta in 1869. He spent time in Oklahoma. (1886-1890) but returned to the Delta. When Harris and Yetta[25] Jacobson, his niece, immigrated in 1891 from Courland, Latvia,[26] he influenced the couple to settle in Clarksdale. Not only did Harris have a business there but numerous Jewish families lived in the vicinity, and there was availability of kosher meats,[27] a necessity for Jewish inhabitants.[28]

Harris and Yetta's first child, Ella, was the first Jewish girl born in Clarksdale in April, 1892. Their five other daughters (Annie, Bessie, Sarah, Minnie, and Nell/Nellie). and three sons,, Louis, Irvin and Benjamin [always called Bennie and later, Ben] were also born in Clarksdale. Ella was twenty years older than Irvin, who was born in 1912.[29]

KERSTINE

(1868, 1880, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ADOLPH

Adolph’s association with “Sidney Landry’s Real Pioneer Firm” was established in 1891. Leonard Sidney Landry, a young man in his mid thirties, a salesman for Wm. R. Moore & Son, wholesaler of Memphis, liked the looks and future of the rich Delta. He opened a mercantile store on Front Street or Sunflower. Landry originally hailed from Dutch town, Ascension Parish, Louisiana. Being an astute businessman, he saw the potentials of this newly awakened area and of Clarksdale. One of several real estate partners, Landry bought property with Adolph Kerstine, a resident originally from Germany.[30]

Landry's store was on property Kerstine bought from John Clark at an earlier time. He built a firewall on both sides when he built it. Two brick walls built back-to-back. These same firewalls made Landry’s and Kerstine's the citadels of safety, standing in the midst of ashes. Three separate fires over the years have ravaged the block and destroyed most of the other original buildings on either side.[31]

Adolph had a house at 238 Delta. Adolph built his home and a commercial building on Delta Avenue before 1892.[32]

1892

John Clark died.[33]

County divided into two Judicial Districts with seats of justice at both Friars Point and Clarksdale. This seemed to compromise the county seat decisions.[34]

Mobile and Northwestern and Louisville, New Orleans and Texas Railroads consolidated with the Yazoo and Mississippi Valley Railroad Company.[35]

It was in the mid 1890s that King and Anderson built the first Alcazar which served as one of the city’s main centers or social activity for about twenty years. Beginning in 1915, the old hotel became an annex to the new one, its upper floor continuing to provide quarters for overnight guests until the building burned in 1947. A few nationally renowned individuals and many notable Mississippians enjoyed the hospitality of the old Alcazar’s management and participated in the frequent dances, banquets and other events held there. The old hotel stood on the northeast corner of Delta and Third. Its lobby opened onto Delta from the eastern corner of the structure. Except for the lobby, the ground floor was devoted to stores and offices while the upper floor provided bedrooms for guests. During most of its early history, the old hotel was operated by Mr. and Mrs. Turner who earlier had operated the Railroad Hotel that once stood by the railroad tracks a block or so away and near the passenger depot. The Alcazar building exterior was brown brick, and it was constructed in Spanish style architecture.

The choice of a name—“Alcazar” is a Spanish word for “palace” or “castle.”[36] Spain has some truly magnificent examples of castle architecture - however, true alcazars are something a little different. Alcazars tend to be inspired by Moorish architecture, and were often built upon the remnants of 13th century Moorish fortresses.[37]

The 1892 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map shows businesses on the south side of the tracks included the Clarksdale Compress on Issaquena Avenue and the Mississippi Cotton Oil Company on Yazoo Avenue.[38]

JACOBSON/BACHARACH

(1880, 1930)

ELLA JACOBSON

She was the first Jewish girl born in Clarksdale. She married Phil Bacharach.

GENTSBURGER

(1868, 1880)

MARX

Marx was in Friars Point also as postmaster.[39]

JIEDAL

(1900)

JAKE

Jake immigrated to US in 1891 or 1892 and was living in Coahoma County as a German Merchant (born February, 1877) NOTE: He is buried in the local Jewish cemetery.[40] Margie interviewed Jo Croner, Memphis, in 2008 when she deposited the Jiedal family collection with the Temple Israel Archives. Jo reported her husband, Jack, had an unmarried uncle (mother’s brother) who had lived in Clarksdale. Jo never met him and did not hear much about him from the family members living in Memphis.

Jake Jiedal: Selma said,

He was just a real old man, and he was crazy about Rosa, my mother. He'd think he saw her after she died. He would tell Mama and Daddy [how] he saw her walking down the street. He really thought her spirit came back. He thought she appeared in town. I remember them talking about it. He was crazy about Daddy, and they probably visited in the store more than anything else. They were never business partners, because Daddy's partner was Landry.[41]

KAUFMAN

(1880 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

MARK (often called MAX and ELLA

Mark Kaufman and his wife Ella, are listed in the 1900 Memphis Census and the Clarksdale census. The Memphis listing showed the couple was living with his parent's. They both were born in 1876 in Russia. Kaufman's family records confirm Max moved to Clarksdale in 1892 and worked as a merchant and tailor. The census said he married Ella Sigfried in 1898 in St. Louis. Irwin said, “ His grandfather had a mercantile store in Memphis, and they wanted to establish a branch in Clarksdale.” According to Irwin, they only resided in the town periodically as they commuted back and forth to Memphis.[42]

Max was buried in CA.[43]

CHILDREN

1) SAUL

Married Henrietta Isaacson.[44] (Beth Israel Cemetery, 5/1/2001).  They had one son, Irwin.

2) LEE

Lee married Marion and lived in California most of his adult life.  They had no children.  She died due to a city bus hitting her.  He ran a fur company and died of a broken heart.

3) BETTY

Betty never married. She owned and operated a men and boy’s dry goods store on Delta Avenue.

4) DEENA

Married Dick Brawerman. They had one son, Mark.

GORDON/KAUFMAN

(1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ABE & SARAH

Sarah was one of Max Kaufman's younger sisters. She was born a twin with Ike in Tennessee in 1892; They were both still living at home in 1910.[45] In the 1920 Census, Sarah's husband, Abe was head of the household. He was 31 (born in 1889 in Pennsylvania. He managed a dry goods store. They had three daughters. Her mother Esther and twin brother Ike were living with them.[46]

CHILDREN:

1) REVA: Reva married Ernest Lee in Memphis.

2) BETTY Betty married a Friedlander out in California lived in San Francisco. Julian Bloom said, “She was about my age, and was in my crowd here in Clarksdale.[47]

3) LORRAINE: married Theodore “Teddy” Salomon, Jonestown.

NOTE: See Kaufman file for a copy of the ad by Marx Kaufman as a New York Tailor. Also included in book, “Issaquena Avenue Memoirs (working title) by author.

KERSTINE

(1868, 1880, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ISIDOR

Adolph and Mollie Kerstine’s second male child was named after Adolph's brother, Isidor. He was born at the 238 Delta house. In 1920 Isidor purchased the commercial building his father built to follow his father's revenue-building real estate strategy of buying and selling local property. Isidore couldn't sell this lot and building fast enough; thus, he decided to open a general merchandise store. He died within several month of keeping the store open for fifty years.[48] He lived and spent his last day in the store working; he died at home on Cherry Street.

NACHMAN

(1868, 1880, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

AL

Among those who served the longest as alderman during the decade of the 1890s [included Al Nachman…served more than two terms….Al Nachman was town clerk during the 1899 [1889]-1890 term.[49]

SACKS

(1900, 1910)

SAUL

Russian Merchant living in Friars Point. B. Hirsberg said,

[Saul] married a schoolmate of my mother’s. Mama arranged the match. He had a grocery store in Friars Point. Mama had a very close friend[with whom] she had gone to school. She visited in Friars Point. and she and Mr. Sacks met. [They] later married.[50]

1900 and 1920 Census Data included:

In 1900, Saul was a clerk living with Harry Silberblatt's family. He was born in 1871. He was married by 1920, to Jenny, who was born in Indiana in 1882. They had three children.[51]

 

CHILDREN:

Lillian a, Raye and Joe Louis.

The Sacks children, moved to Memphis. Saul lived and died in Friars Point. The family moved to Clarksdale and lived here for a few years. They moved to Memphis. I know that two of the three children are dead.[52]

1893

GOLDSTEIN

(1910, 1920, 1930)

LOUIS

Moved to Clarksdale; age 23.

JACOBSON

(1868, 1880, 1900, 1920, 1930)

December 8, 1892:  Releases granted to G. R. Perryman for property in Lula, MS.[53]

KERSTINE

(1868, 1880, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

FAMILY LEAVES CLARKDALE

L Sidney Landry took over the business from Adolph who sold to move with his family to Chicago because of the excitement of the World’s Exposition Fair. Corinne said that he tried to earn a living there but suffered heavy losses in Chicago. And, the family almost starved to death. He bought an old mule to help him peddle his goods. He couldn’t even feed his mule. He let the mule go by hitting him on the rear and telling it to get going. At some time he returned to Greenwood, MS, but we do not know the exact dates. Reviewing land deeds it showed he still owned property in Clarksdale and but the deeds were in Molly's name and stated he was no longer in Clarksdale; however, it did not say where he was.[54]

LANDAU

(1900 1910, 1920, 1930)

MAX

Selma said, “I do not know when Carly came to Clarksdale. They had no children. I played with Carly when I was about 6 years old [1914]”.[55]

Corinne said,

Uncle Max and Aunt Carly lived on the corner of Oakhurst. They lived just before the 2nd block began. The Grobers lived next door in a nice bungalow.I remember that she had lots of things from Germany that they brought back from a trip they took there.…a lot of fine china. They had a very lovely home. No, I don’t know where they got their furniture. They were Richard's godparents. I gave Richard things from their home. I selected them as godparents because we were very close, more than Mose. Max looked like an average size man in those days, about 5'8.[56]

A passport Max bought in 1922 stated he was born in Camberg, Germany in 1876 and immigrated in 1893. Because he listed New Orleans, Memphis, Itta Bena and other places as prior residence, it can not be determine when he arrived in Clarksdale to be a resident[57]

1894

Roof Garden Closed,[58]

New brick court houses completed at Friars Point and Clarksdale in compliance with act of the Legislature of 1892.[59]

Ex-Governor James L. Alcorn, Coahoma County’s most distinguished citizen, dies.[60]

CONGREGATION B’NAI ISRAEL

Presumably, Jews went out of town for religious services until 1894, when they began to meet at the home of Max Kaufman, and Congregation Beth Israel was organized.

An article appearing in the local newspaper about the congregation stated:

“Jews professing one of the three have all belonged to Beth Israel, and an attempt was always made to accommodate all of them. While Orthodox services were being held in the original synagogue, Reform worship was going on at some outside locale, often under some specially.”[61]

PICARD

(1900, 1930)

JULIUS

Newspaper article says he has just opened a butcher shop as an agent for Brown & Rodgers. He had left the employment of J.H. Bergman to open at Brown & Rodgers old stand on Delta Avenue.[62] The Picards did not participate in the Jewish community life.

Owned a butcher shop; emigrated from Germany to U.S. in 1892; and married in 1896. He had very, very limited affiliation with the Jewish community. He was a member of the Temple and came to services on rare occasions. He married a gentile, Mabel.[63]

CHILD: SOPHIA: Became a beautician.[64]

1895

March 5: The city board recognized the threat of a smallpox outbreak and following the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, the Coahoma County is established by act of the State Legislature mid a board of health…to study the situation and to take any emergency actions deemed advisable. Dr. H. C. Buck was named city physician and health officer.

Dr. Buck moved quickly to launch a vaccination program in the town—a program that apparently was effective.The outbreak was not as serious as frightened Clarksdalians had feared it might be.

BERG

(1868, 1880, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

S.H.

April12: Trust Deed granted by J. G. & S.B Chism.[65]

COHEN

(1868, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

CHARLES and MOLLIE

Charles was born in 1871 in Russia and immigrated in 1886. He married to a Mollie Marcus by 1894. She was born in 1876 in Poland and immigrated in 1892 She had 3 brothers, L. T. Marcus, Abe S. Marcus and Hyman Marcus who were living in Chicago at the time of her death.[66]

Charles started a dry goods store in Coahoma. He was a prominent Mason. He was identified with every movement that lent itself to the betterment of his community. He was a charter member of the Congregation B’nai Israel. Charles Cohen was very friendly with the Hirsberg family living in Friars Point. Rebecca and David use to come to school in Clarksdale.  There was another daughter that married a Goldsmith from Helena.[67] Adele Cohen Kline said he was not related to Fred Cohen.[68]

CHILDREN

1) Sadie (Mrs. George S. Goldsmith)

She married Goldsmith from Helena who had a cotton company

CHILDREN: George and Carrolton[69]

2) Rebekah

3) Hymen L. Cohen[70]

NACHMAN

(1880, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

AL

By 1895, the Clarksdale Bank & Trust Co. was floundering due to the death of the President, John Clark (1892) and a flagging economy. Thus, two 2 banks emerged (Clarksdale Savings & Loan Institution and the Planter’s Bank). Al Nachman served as the Cashier for the Clarksdale Savings & Loan; however, about the time that the latter group soon merged with the Citizens Savings Bank, Nachman resigned.[71]

ROXIE was his nickname. Fink remembered Nachman was a little man who used to come ever summer to Clarksdale or in the Fall. He lived some place in New Jersey. He was a very wealthy man.[72]

RICHBERGER

(1868, 1880, 1900, 1910)

GEORGE

Here’s Clarksdale mentioned George Richberger three or four time: (1) for the city of Rich, (2) for banks, and (3) because he was an editor and worked with the newspapers. He had a strong history in the area. He was very active and very well liked man, and he did a lot.[73]

The list of references which related to the information for the chapter “Ink in their Veins” included a series of articles by Harry Abernathy that appeared in the Clarksdale Press Register on October 7-13, 1978; an article in the Press Register of 1958; several newspaper clippings on file in the Library and the statement of Joseph F. Ellis; Jr. These focused on a report that he had been found guilty of embezzlement and had left town.[74]

”Sometime between 1895 and the early 1900s, when Al Nachman resigned as Cashier for either the Clarksdale Savings & Loan Institution or the merged bank Citizens Bank, George who had been with the Bank of Jonestown, took Nachman’s place.[75]

Gertrude said that she did not even know about accusations of her grandfather’s embezzlement. She knew individuals at the Planter’s Bank very well. She said: “Cause that is all news to me. I don’t believe even my mother knew that.” However, the chapter also stated in 1895 Wildberger became the Clerk at the Citizens’ Bank (formerly called the Citizens Savings Bank) Cutrer was still the president.[76]

Gertrude talked about George and Cutrer being real good friends. They use to do gambling together They used to play poker--a bunch up at the Cutrer house. I remember him telling me about the times they played poker all night at the Cutrer’s house. Well, anyway, this must have occurred, because he it does not say why he left the bank and who took over.[77]

My grandmother, Mary, was neither heavyset nor thin. The best cook in the whole world. She cooked cheesecake real good but everything that’s good. She was just a lovely lady. No, she was really not very business-oriented.) I don’t think that she even knew that they owned any property. I don’t know what she did when she was young. Cause when I knew her she was older. In those days, they did put their property in their wives’ name, because my grandfather did the same thing. Gertrude said however, I don’t think she ever knew anything about business. Now, I know my mother didn’t.[78]

Another article stated the following about George:

[Richberger] owns and operates a mercantile establishment on Sunflower Avenue and is assessor of this county, is an example in point and bids fair to the classed among the millionaires at no distant day provided his recent invention is the success we take it to be. Through two years of hard work he has invented a device for the exhibition of spool thread that is different from any ever heard of before and will be a necessary article in all well regulated mercantile establishments. Through his attorneys Cutrer & Cutrer of this city, he was applied for letters patent on the invention and hopes to place it on the market at an early day. It is on exhibition at his place of business.

SALOMON

(1900 1910, 1910, 1920, 1930)

Arthur and Annie:

They married this year. Arthur was born in Germany in 1867. He was a merchant in Jonestown. Annie was born in Russia in 1875.

Children:

1)                David was born in 1896 in Mississippi.

2)                Herman was born in 1897.

3)                Ruby was born in 1900[79]

1896

Describes life in Clarksdale during this period from an article published in 1931:

People driving along in their shiny and luxurious cars over the graveled of hard surfaced highways running out of Clarksdale Mississippi, down through Coahoma county, little realize that less than thirty-five years agopeople lived very primitive lives in primitive homes in that section of the state.…Dwelling houses were of logs or rough cull lumber, built on the banks of Sunflower River. Dublin, the nearest post office, was ten long miles away, and usually a boy or man rode horse back on Saturday afternoons to Dublin and brought in the mail for the entire neighborhood. There were no community settlements, but homes were sometimes within a mile of each other.

One thought nothing of walking a mile to see a neighbor or to sit up with a sick friend such as was done, was in Clarksdale; usually the entire family loaded into the farm wagon which was drawn over the natural dirt roads—through mud that stuck and crawls upon the legs of the animals, and into the spokes of the wagon wheels—by two or ---our horses. The trip was certain –an all-day event. Dinner for the family was packed into a big bucket. There were no hamburger …or filing stations on nor were there attractive ….and popular eating places where the family could go and appease the appetite. Sometimes the…family treated the … to a box [lunch]…which were purchased for a nickel and a few soda crackers were thrown in. Then maybe ten worth of fancy cakes with a seed sprinkled on top were added to the menu. If it the fall of the year when cotton was hauled into town to sell, they might be taken to a boarding house and served with dinner for twenty-five cents a head, but not often was such extravagance in for the money it would to feed the family at the boarding house would buy Johnny a pair of boots which he could wear all winter. If the family reached home at ten or eleven it was considered a lucky trip. If back in those day driver tried to detour through the woods, often getting or against a log.[80]

CONGREGATION BETH ISRAEL

Because the Clarksdale Jewish community was featured in the Jewish Ledger in 1923, the history of the early congregation was recorded, “The first religious congregation became a reality this year. Meetings, religious, social and business, were held at the Knights of Pythias Hal on Sunflower Avenue. There were only five families supporting it.”[81]

The author reviewed the 1870 through 1900 U.S census to find sixteen Jewish men were doing business in Coahoma County. The Congregational founders were Orthodox; however, we have not established which were the five founders.

The Jewish Ledger article stated:

The support given by the surrounding territory made the congregation a moral and financial possibility. The limited Jewish population hindered the holding regular weekly services, the religious functions consisting almost solely to the Rosh Hashonah and Yom Kippur performances.[82]

FRIEDMAN

(1868, 1880 1900 1910, 1920, 1930)

MAX

Born in Shkudvile, Latvia, he was 17 years old (July 15, 1896) when his mother, Eta, Sam, his brother and Max came to join his father.[83] According to Max, “Clarksdale was just a small country town, harboring a total population of 1500 people of which 500 were white and the business district comprised the only points of interest to any sightseer.” For six months Max Friedman made a meager living by selling merchandise door-to-door in local and surrounding territory.[84]

RICHBERGER/DAMSKER

(1868, 1880, 1900 1910, 1920, 1930)

HELEN

Rosa’s sister married Louis Damsker Louis Damsker who was Herman Damsker's brother Their daughter, Sonja Damsker was married to somebody in Alabama or Columbia.[85]

SALOMON

(1900 1910, 1910, 1920, 1930)

DAVID

Son of Arthur and Anne Salomon.[86]

 

1897

February 13: An issue of Monroe County's Cotton Gin Port newspaper, The Cotton Mirror, carried the following motto, 'In God We Trust, All Others Cash."[87]

From “Clarksdale in 1897” by Miriam Dabbs illustrates the extreme conditions in Clarksdale:[88]

On November 11, 1897, Mrs. Pauline Alston Clark, wife of Walter Clark, wrote in her journal, ‘We have had an exciting summer and fall. In fact, the entire year has been full of excitement; A Mississippi River flood, drought, yellow fever, diphtheria, five-cent cotton and today the compress blew up, killing one of the workers!”

The levee was under construction in 1897….The levee had already broken below Friars point, and the southern counties were under water... on April 5th she wrote, “The levee has broken…yesterday at nine o’clock.…The train came in yesterday and went back to Memphis at 5 am…and several went out.

On April 7, Pauline wrote, “

The water is here! The levee broke at nine o’clock Sunday morning, and the water reached Clarksdale Tuesday morning at eleven and has been coming faster and faster ever since. This morning when we got up we could see a little water in the bottom north of us, and it was no time before it was covered. It filled the Sunflower River very quickly and was swifter than it was ever known to e before. The new iron bridge over the Sunflower River went down about two o’clock this morning. It did not stand after the water reached it. Everyone was excited and frightened but went to work.[89]

“The stores were closed, and clerks and all went to work on the levee to try to save Clarksdale….White folks, Negroes and Chinese were working to keep the water back.…The river rose about two and a half feet an hour for four or five hours. This afternoon it slackened to about nine inches an hour.[90]

On one day she wrote, “It is raining tonight! We have no mail or any communication with the outside world. The telephone and telegraph service is out,”[91]

On April 11, she wrote, ”The cotton houses are floating away. We were watching the pump house at the railroad when it floated off. Houses and pieces of houses are floating by constantly. Everyone is interested in building or getting a boat, Walter is down today building a flatboat…[92]

On May 13th, Pauline's dairy said,, ”The water is gone and the green is beginning to appear on the fields that were a few weeks ago a shining lake.[93]

Pauline touched on the seriousness of several illnesses,

“which plagues…but are seldom heard of any more.…Nearly everyone is home after their summer outing. Only those who went to Memphis to the Tennessee Centennial and were quarantined when yellow fever was around in Memphis are absent.

We have had a diphtheria scare! School has been in session about three weeks when little Edwin Johnson had diphtheria and died…School was suspended, and I am glad to say that of our children had it.  The quarantine will be lifted tomorrow, and business will again be resumed

December 3: A telephone exchange had been installed in Clarksdale, and 193 customers immediately began using the new facilities. They phone network grew quickly.[94]

BINDER

(1868, 1880, 1900 1910, 1920, 1930)

VICTOR

Victor was born in Russia in 1876. He immigrated in 1897.[95] His parents did not immigrate to America. He came from the village known as Upend, Covna Geberne, Lithuania. He married Rachael (sister of Max Friedman) in Europe. Rachel and Victor lived in the same European town. Rachel, one of nine children of Rachael Leah and Isadore Binder, was born in 1878 in Russia .

After Victor and Rachel married in Europe, they immigrated to Philadelphia in 1897 because Max Friedman was living there. She was pregnant. Victor left her and returned to Germany to serve the Kaiser for 7 years. After that time he came back to America. His two brothers, Will and Joseph also immigrated[96]

CHILDREN:

1) Belle born in1897.

2) Ida born in 1907.

3) Annie in 1907.

4) Sarah in 1908.

5) Max in 1910.[97]

The couple' five children were born in Mississippi. In the beginning they lived in Riverton where the Joe Binders lived.[98]

FRIEDMAN

(1868, 1880, 1900 1910, 1920, 1930)

CHARLES & MAX:

HIRSBERG

(1900 1910, 1920, 1930)

JACOB

Bernard Hirsberg said:

Papa came to Friars Point in the 1890’s. I think it was 1897 or 1898. He came to this country in 1870, and he was first in Baltimore, then Louisville, Knoxville, and then Cary, Mississippi. He was a peddler for a period of time when he was in Louisville. When he lived in Louisville, he established a store in Gravestown, Tennessee, which, at that time, was outside of Knoxville. He had a store there, and he was Postmaster. Then, he moved to Cary. He moved from Cary, to Friars Point because of the yellow fever epidemic, and it was suggested that the farther north you went, the less prevalent was yellow fever.[99]

Papa was born in Lithuania, and came to the U.S. at a very young age. Papa was an extremely religious person,n and I say this with pardonable pride. He was the most honorable person I have ever known in my life. There never was a question of right or wrong with him. It was either right or it was wrong. There was no gray area and no compromising. From the time I knew him,[and] from the time that was old enough to have some knowledge of business affairs. My father was a very proud person, and he did not like obligations or debts. He felt that if you were indebted to a person, you were obligated to that person. As a result of that, every night before he went home, he paid every bill that he owed; everything that came in. As kids we were not permitted to have a charge account at the service stations or drugstores or grocery stores. Everything had to be paid. If you didn’t have the money, don’t buy it. It was that simple.[100](B. Hirsberg, 7)

Before he married or when he moved to Friars Point, he lived in the back of the store. And he did some of his cooking there, mostly he ate in restaurants, but he did do some cooking. At that time, they had a very low levee in Friars Point. I do recall some of his stories that during the high water, the main concern was building up the levee, and at some period of time in there, actually he physically helped fill the sandbags and build up the levee. No, they did not experience flooding while he was living there.  He was in his 20s or 30s at that time.  [He then added:  He was not sure if it was 31, 32, or 35 years old when he got married.

Jacob was a very religious man.  He laid tefillah every day. He davnen every day. I don’t believe there ever was an exception.[101]

KERSTINE

(1868, 1880, 1900 1910, 1920, 1930)

ADOLPH

Data from Temple shows family living in Greenwood that Adolph is one of the founders of reform temple.[102]

CAESAR

Caesar was born in Greenwood. The family moved back to Clarksdale after 1897 but no exact date has been confirmed.[103]

JACOBSON

(1900, 1910, 1920, 1930)

HERMAN & LENA

1900 U. S. Census says Herman was born in 1871 in Russia; Lena R was born in 1877. They married in 1897; data says two children had dead. They were living on Sunflower Avenue. Herman's occupation was dry goods merchant.

Lena's brother, H. Gordon was living with them. He was born in 1867 in Russia had been married for 13 years. Listed as a drys goods peddler.[104]

KLINE

Meyer/Myer

Pauline Adelson said that Myer Kline first farmed in Anguilla with his brother, Henry who had a plantation and stores. It is believed that when Henry moved his family to Anguilla he put Myer in business with a plantation and stores in Alligator.[105]

The 1900 Census reported Kline was born in 1881 and immigrated from Russia in 1897 to Glen Allen, Washington County He was a merchant and a boarder in the Jacobson's.[106] Later, he moved his general merchandise store Beat 1, Bolivar County. He also married Bobette in 1910. Bobette was born in Tennessee in 1881 Then the Census reported he immigrated in 1898..[107]

Myer’s wife, Bobette, was a sister to Bernard Adelson. (Adelson, 11). They had three girls: Reva, who married a Marcus and lived in Vicksburg; Jessie, who married a Livingston; and Pauline/Polly, who married Lester Sack Sr. and remained in Clarksdale.[108]

NACHMAN

(1880, 1900 1910, 1920, 1930)

AL

Saul Kaufman’s father fought with Al Nachman during the Spanish American War. This was the reason Al Nachman came to Clarksdale from the East. He came for long periods of time to do business, rather than to be a year round resident.[109] However, the Clarksdale Press Register’s obituary of 1/7/1947 stated he believed that Clarksdale was his home. Picture found in Weeks book.[110]

Corinne Kerstine told Margie Al Nachman bought the elk statute for the Elks Club building. Corinne said: He was always dressed up in a 3-piece suit with the [vest] watch.[111]

1898

BAKER

(1880, 1900 1910, 1920, 1930)

HARRY

Julia Baker provided the following interview which took place on August 1, 1916, in a village in what is now Russia. At the time the village of Scutville was located on the border between Latvia and Lithuania. Oro response when asked by the Hebrew Watchman, Memphis Tennessee reporter to describe his life before he traveled to America:[112]

I was a buyer of horses for the Czar of Russia, and I traveled to a lot of different places. But first I must tell you, I have been married two times. I first wife died when two of my sons, and two of my daughters were very young. I remarried, and now I have three sons and four daughters. My youngest son died before he was thirteen. When I was on a boat to Africa, I met two very nice young men, and I asked to come to Scutville with me. After they were there a while, I introduced them to my older daughters. A few months later we had two weddings. One daughter Edie, and her husband went to South Africa and settled in Johannesburg. Fanny, the other daughter, and her husband went to America and now live in Pennsylvania. What was the question? Oh, yes, you asked me about my life before I went to America. My wife has a bakery. You probably noticed the large outdoor oven in the yard as you walked up to the front door. When I wasn't traveling for the Czar I helped her in the bakery.

[I took my first trip to America with] my oldest son Frank. [We] went before 1900. At my age I can't remember exact dates, but I am sure it was the late 1800s. We had all of our papers in order, so we were able to enter Ellis Island. Then we went to New Jersey where my wife has two brothers. Then we wanted to go to Mississippi to contact a distant cousin. We were low on money, so we went to the Jewish Welfare office. There they gave each of us a pack of merchandise to sell as we traveled across the USA. We could speak a little English and learned more as we traveled. When our merchandise got low, we took jobs with the railroad company laying ties. This was much better than peddling. We had transportation and made more money while working.

[I stayed in Mississippi] just long enough to make sure my son had a comfortable place to stay, and he had a job. After all I had other children to think about. I told you I had been to Memphis several times. We stopped there before going to Clarksdale, Mississippi.[113]

My second son, Harry, went by himself. After he stayed with his uncles in New Jersey several months, he also went to Mississippi. He and his brother moved to a very small town named Dublin a short distance from Clarksdale and went in the mercantile business. Later they also farmed and traded cattle including horses.[114]

Julia explained the Bakers' decision to move to [Clarksdale].[115]

People said move south, because there are no inexpensive stores for the sharecroppers and the farmers to shop….Grandfather Baker moved to Clarksdale from Marvell, Arkansas….He bought property and built three stores and had a store [on Issaquena]….Until about the mid 30s.…the merchants were on Sunflower,…[because that was the cheaper stores]….Then they moved…because the trade people were moving…to different locations to buy things. More people were going to Issaquena.[116]

1899

WOOLBERT

(1900 1910, 1920, 1930)

ABRAHAM & YETTA

No date has been determined as to when the Interviews have determined that They first came down the river and settled in Vicksburg.

Abraham opened a tobacco shop.[117] Soon after that, Abraham moved to Warren, Arkansas, and continued as a tailor and merchant. By this time, Yetta had brought Minnie (Mrs. Leon Woolbert) in 1892 and Becky (Mrs. Joe Friedman, Hollandale) to United States. There was another sister of Yetta, Fannie Wisehammer, Yetta's sister, also lived in Mississippi At some time while they were living in Arkansas, Yetta asked to move back from Arkansas to Mississippi because all her family lived in that State..[118]

The first house on Street dead-ends into Sunflower Street at the Sunflower River. My grandparents lived in a house next door until 1909 when they built the house on Oakhurst.[119]


CHILDREN:

1)                Francis “Fannie”, the oldest daughter was born in 1889.

2)               Freda was born in Vicksburg in 1892. [120]

3)                Esther

4)                W. K

5)                Celeste: Celeste was born in 1902 in Warren, AR.[121]

6)                David B.

All the children, except Celeste were born in Clarksdale. They had a third boy who died practically at birth and is buried in Chattanooga. Amy commented that even her mother, Celeste, worshipped Freda.[122]

Amy did not think any of Abe’s daughters worked in his store. Celeste worked for Powers for a little bit. Esther taught school but I don’t think Freda worked. She didn’t have to when she married Jake Fink because he was really rich. All the daughters went to MSCW, except maybe Fannie, who is the oldest sister.[123]

Yetta was a wonderful cook who helped in the store. They always did what was up to date. They had one of the first telephones in town—the box type that you crank up. The farmers used to come into the store, and sometimes they didn’t have cash; so they wanted to trade a chicken or something for merchandise. Sometime, Abe was able to do that because he needed it and sometimes he didn’t. So, when this farmer came in and wanted to trade chickens or something for merchandise, Abe said, “you will have to wait a minute while I call my wife to see if she needs it.” So he cranks up the telephone and called home and asked my grandmother if she could use it. I guess she said ok. He returned to the man, and the man said. “Mr. Woolbert, I maybe just an ignorant farmer, but you can’t make me believe your wife is in that little box.”[124]

Celeste told Amy that her dad always sent to New York for books about Judaism and Jewish history. They would be delivered by river boats. He read to them to be sure that his children would have some knowledge about their background [125]

LEON & MINNIE

Alvin Fink explained the two Woolbert families because of the duplication of names:

One child was “Little Freda”. As stated somewhere else, there were 2 Freda’s and 2 Celeste’s between Leon and his brother, Abraham. These were double first cousins because brothers married sisters. Uncle Ed was their father and a brother to my Yetta. These were called “arranged marriages.” Yetta had a sister, Birdie, who lived in Philadelphia. She married into the Baird family. I wanted to sell her watch when I went to Germany. A.W. Woolbert is a cousin; his brother was Leon who married Yetta’s sister. They all lived in Clarksdale at one time.[126]



[1] Cooper, Forrest Lamar. “Mississippi Matter of Fact”, 1995 Calendar Florence, MS, 1995. [Note: use dates for page number.]

[2] "Coahoma County Is Famous Throughout Dixie for Its Abundant Crop." Clarksdale Daily Register and News (Clarksdale, Mississippi), September 3, 1936, Cotton Festival Edition, 6.

[3] McLemore, Richard Aubrey. A History of Mississippi. Vol. I and II. Hattiesburg, MS: University & College Press of Mississippi, 1973, 602.

[4] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936. 1, Lines 36-37.

[5] Ibid.

[6] McLemore, Richard Aubrey. A History of Mississippi. Vol. II. Hattiesburg, MS: University & College Press of Mississippi, 1973, 3.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Abernathy, Harry. "Clarksdale Was Bustling during 1890s." Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi), Clarksdale Public Library Scrapbook.

[9] “1900 United States Federal Census for Charlie Marcus” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 3B; Enumeration District: 0023; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 5 Line 74. Accessed January 17, 2016. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[10] Fink, Alvin personal interview and transcripts with author, November 27, 1993. Autobiographical papers included which was accidentally destroyed. Margery Kerstine Oral Interview Collection.

[11] “1910 United States Federal Census for Arth [sic]Alpern'” Year: 1910; Census Place: Beat 1, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_736; Page: 1A; Enumeration District: 0024; FHL microfilm: 1374749, 1, Lines 36, 37. Accessed January 17, 2016. http://interactive. ancestry.com.

[12] Kline, Adele Cohen and Aaron Kline interview and trasnscripts with author, November 28, 1993.

[13] Brenner, Charles Family collection. McLemore, Richard Aubrey. A History of Mississippi. Vol. I and II. Hattiesburg, MS: University & College Press of Mississippi, 1973, 309, 310.

[14] Land Deed Record #CC 2nd District Coahoma County County Chancery Clerk Office, Clarksdale, Mississippi, 271.

[15] Ibid, 326.

[16] Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcripts with author, 1977-1998, Margery Kerstine Collection.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Year: 1910; Census Place: Memphis Ward 23, Shelby, Tennessee; Roll: T624_1521; Page: 1B; Enumeration District: 0257; FHL microfilm: 1375534. 2, Lines 53-56. Accessed September 6, 2015. top://interactive.ancestry.com.

[19] United States. National Archives. Washington, D C. Year: 1910; Census Place: Memphis Ward 23, Shelby, Tennessee; Roll: T624_1521; Page: 1B; Enumeration District: 0257; FHL microfilm: 1375534. 2, Lines 53-56. Accessed September 6, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

Ancestry.com. http://search.ancestry.comArkansas, County Marriages Index, 1837-1957 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. Accessed September 6, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com. http://search. ancestry.com.

“ Arkansas, County Marriages Index, 1837-1957 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.Accessed September 6, 2015. http://interactive. ancestry.com. http://search. ancestry.com.

[20] Ibid.

[21] United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.”Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 3B; Enumeration District: 0023; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 5, Line 91. Accessed July 26, 2015. http://www/interactive.Ancestry.com.

[22] “1900 United States Federal Census for Samuel Silverson.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 2, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 5B; Enumeration District: 0020; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 19, Lines 80, 81. Accessed January 17, 2016. 5. http://www/interactive. Ancestry.com.

Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgy” interview and transcripts with author, April 27, 1994.

[23] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[24] Land Deed Record #EE, 2nd District Coahoma County Chancery Clerk Office, Clarksdale, Mississippi, 122.

[25] Jetta's is the European Yiddish spelling and “Yetta” is the American spelling; Gitel, a Hebrew name, is a derivative of “Jetta.” She only used her official American name 'Gertrude” for legal and business purposes. Her tombstone says “Yetta.”

[26] Gilbert Jacobson Interview with author, Tract 1, August 2, 2012. “Mrs Yetta Jacobson Died Early today at Hospital; Services Held;” May 8, 1948; Clarksdale Obit Scrapbook, Clarksdale Public Library; Gilbert Jacobson email to author, August 19, 2001.

[27] Jacobson, Gilbert phone interview with author 11/024/2014.

[28] Brenner, Charles interview and private Brenner Genealogical Collection. 1994-2015.Jacobson, Gilbert email, January 7, 2015.

[29] Ibid.

[30] Clarksdale Microfilm Scrapbook, Clarksdale Public Library, #1, 40

Weeks, Linton. “The Gay Nineties,”Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (P.O. Box 280, Clarksdale 38614): Carnegie Public Library, 1982.

Edwards, Olive. "LANDRY'S Since 1891." Here's Clarksdale, March/April 1978, 6-9.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Ibid.

[33] Abernathy, Harry. "Clarksdale Was Bustling Done 1890s." Compiled by Clarksdale Public Library Scrapbook Collection. Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi).

[34] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[35] Ibid.

[36] “Alcazar Hotel”, Clarksdale Public Library Vertical File,. Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale , Mississippi), October 28, 1989.

[37] "Alcazar (Castles) of Spain: Three Magical Spanish Fortresses." Alcazar (Castles) of Spain: Three Magical Spanish Fortresses. Accessed August 02, 2015. http://www.exploring-castles.com/alcazar_castle.html.

[38] “Clarksdale, Mississippi”, Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, August, 1892, 2.

[39] Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with transcript with author, March 16, 1995, transcript. Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection.

U.S. Postmasters Registry , Clarksdale Mississippi Room, Clarksdale Public Library.

[40] United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.”Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 806; Page: 17B; Enumeration District: 0025; FHL microfilm: 1240806, 34, Line 60. Accessed August 2, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[41] Weinberger, Selma home interviews and transcripts with author, 1987-2001, transcripts. Kerstine's Family Album's Collection.

[42] Kaufman, Irwin interview with transcripts with author, 1994, Kerstine Oral Interview Collection and Kaufman, Irwin email, May 25, 2001, Kerstine Collection.

United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.”Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 806; Page: 16B; Enumeration District: 0025; FHL microfilm: 1240806, 32, Lines 95-100. Accessed August 9, 2015. http://www.interactive.ancestry.com.

United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Memphis Ward 6, Shelby, Tennessee; Roll: 1598; Page: 26A; Enumeration District: 0075; FHL microfilm: 1241598, 51, Lines 1-28.

United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.”Year: 1910; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 3A; Enumeration District: 0033; FHL microfilm: 1374750, 38, Lines 31-34. Accessed August 9, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[43] Clarksdale Public Library Scrapbook Collection, comp. "Mr. Max Kaufman Passes in West." Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi), August 12, 1940.

[44] Franklin, Lynn Aubrey. "Beth Israel Cemetery." 2008. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb. ancestry.com/~ssjdb/Clarksdale.htm.

[45] United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.”Year: 1910; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 3A; Enumeration District: 0033; FHL microfilm: 1374750, 38, Lines 31-34. Accessed August 9, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.” Year: 1920; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T625_873; Page: 17A; Enumeration District: 37; Image: 966, 50, Lines 31-36. Accessed August 9, 2015. http://http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[46] United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.” Year: 1920; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T625_873; Page: 17A; Enumeration District: 37; Image: 966, 50, Lines 31-36. Accessed August 9, 2015. http://http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[47] Bloom, Julian, interview with transcript with author, November 18, 1993.

[48] Frost, Harold interview, several phone conversation with transcript between January, 1985-1994. Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection.

[49] Abernathy, Harry. "Clarksdale Was Bustling During 1890s." Compiled by Clarksdale Public Library Scrapbook Collection. Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi).

[50] Hirsberg, Bernard personal interview with transcript with author, circa 1994, Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection.

[51] 1900 United States Federal Census for Saul Sacks.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 2, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 6A; Enumeration District: 0020; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 22, Line 12. Accessed November 1, 2015. http://http://interactive.ancestry.com.

1920 United States Federal Census for S Sacks.” Year: 1920; Census Place: Beat 2, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T625_873; Page: 21A; Enumeration District: 28; Image: 70740, Lines 29-34. Accessed November 1, 2015. http://http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[52] Ibid.

[53] Land Deed Records Book “FF”, 2nd District Coahoma County Chancery Clerk Office, Clarksdale, Mississippi, 473.

[54] Weeks, Linton. “The Gay Nineties,” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (P.O. Box 280, Clarksdale 38614): Carnegie Public Library, 1982, 99. Kerstine, Corinne interviews with transcripts with author, 1977-1998, transcript, Kerstine's Family Album's Collection. “Alcazar”, Clarksdale Public Library Vertical File. Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale , Mississippi), October 28, 1989. Weinberger, Selma home interviews and transcripts with author, 1987-2001, transcripts. Kerstine's Family Album's Collection.

[55] Weinberger, Selma home interview with author, 1987-2001, transcripts.

[56] Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcripts with author, 1977-1998, Margery Kerstine Collection.

[57] “search.ancestry.com.” National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington D.C.; NARA Series: Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 - March 31, 1925; Roll #: 1893; Volume #: Roll 1893 - Certificates: 141226-141599, 08 Apr 1922-08 Apr 1922, 2, Lines . Accessed September 6, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[58] Clarksdale Library Microfilm Scrapbooks, Clarksdale Public Library, Clarksdale, Mississippi.

[59] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[60] Ibid.

[61] "Beth Israel & 75th Year to Be Celebrated." Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi), October 10, 1969, Page 3, Column 1-6. Congregation Beth Israel Anniversary Issue, June 1939.

[62] “Files of the Delta Advance, Friday, May 25, 1894.” Clarksdale Library Scrapbooks, #1 Clarksdale Public Library, Clarksdale, Mississippi, 15.

[63] Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgy” interview and transcripts with author, April 27, 1994.

[64] Kline, Adele Cohen and Sol Kline interviews with author, November 28, 1993.

[65] Land Deed Records Book “H2” 2nd District Coahoma County Chancery Clerk Office, Clarksdale, Mississippi, 277

[66] United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.”Year: 1930; Census Place: Coahoma, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 1143; Page: 3A; Enumeration District: 0008; Image: 106.0; FHL microfilm: 2340878, 6, Lines 20-23. Accessed August 16, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com. Fink, Alvin interview and manuscript with transcript with author, November 27, 1993.

United States. Bureau of the Census. National Archives and Records Administration. “Interactive.ancestry.com.” Year: 1910; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 2B; Enumeration District: 0028; FHL microfilm: 1374750, 27, Lines 11-15. Accessed August 16,, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[67] Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgy” interview and transcripts with author, April 27, 1994.

[68] Kline, Adele Cohen & Aaron Kline home interview and transcript with author and Corrine Kerstine, November 27, 1993.

[69] Ibid.

[70] Ibid.

[71] Weeks, Linton. “Banks,” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (P.O. Box 280, Clarksdale 38614): Carnegie Public Library, 1982, 171.

[72] Fink, Alvin interview and manuscript with transcript with author, November 27, 1993.

[73] Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with transcript with author, March 16, 1995, transcript. Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection.

[74] Weeks, Linton. Ink in Their Veins,” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (P.O. Box 280, Clarksdale 38614): Carnegie Public Library, 1982, 164.

[75] Weeks, Linton. “Banks,” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (P.O. Box 280, Clarksdale 38614): Carnegie Public Library, 1982, 171.

[76] Ibid.

[77] Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with transcript with author, March 16, 1995, transcript. Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection.

[78] Ibid.

[79] United States. National Archives. Washington, D C. “Interactive.ancestry.com ” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 3B; Enumeration District: 0023; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 5 Lines 64-69. Access ed August 29, 2014). http://www.ancestry.com.

[80] Nave, Lillie C. "Pioneer Life in Coahoma." Clarksdale Press Register [Clarksdale, Mississippi] 1 Dec. 1931.

[81] "Jewish Historical Edition of Clarksdale, MS." The Jewish Ledger-New Orleans (New Orleans), 1923, 1.

[82] Ibid.

[83] "Jewish Historical Edition of Clarksdale, MS: Max Friedman" The Jewish Ledger-New Orleans (New Orleans), 1923, 3.

Weeks, Linton. “The Gay Nineties,” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (P.O. Box 280, Clarksdale 38614): Carnegie Public Library, 1982, 92. Friedman ? interview and transcript with author, 2003.

[84] WPA Historical Research Project of Coahoma County, Assignment #3, Mrs. J. L. McKeown, Canvasser, July 15, 1936.

[85] Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with transcript with author, March 16, 1995, transcript. Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection.

[86] United States. Bureau of Census. “Interactive.ancestry.com.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 3B; Enumeration District: 0023; FHL microfilm: 1240805. 5, Lines 64-68. Accessed August 29, 2014. http://interactive.ancestry.com. 5, Lines 64-68.

[87] Cooper, Forrest Lamar. “Mississippi Matter of Fact”, 1995 Calendar Florence, MS, 1995. [Note: use dates for page number.]

[88] Dabbs, Miriam. "Clarksdale in 1897 (Diary Mrs. Pauline A. Clark)." Here's Clarksdale, March/April 1973, 16-22.

[89] Ibid.

[90] Ibid.

[91] Ibid.

[92] Ibid.

[93] Ibid.

[94] Abernathy, Harry. "Clarksdale Was Bustling during 1890s." Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi), Clarksdale Public Library Scrapbook.

[95] United States. National Archives. Washington, D C. “Interactive.ancestry.com ” Year: 1910; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 12A; Enumeration District: 0033; FHL microfilm: 1374750,. 14 Lines 87-93. Accessed August 30, 2015. http://www.Ancestry.com.

[96] Abrams, Marilyn Binder interview and papers in Binder Genealogical Private Collection and on file at Temple Israel Archives, Memphis, TN.

[97] United States. National Archives. Washington, D C. “Interactive.ancestry.com ” Year: 1910; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 12A; Enumeration District: 0033; FHL microfilm: 1374750,. 14 Lines 87-93. Accessed August 30, 2015. http://www.Ancestry.com.

[98] Ibid.

[99] Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgy” interview and transcripts with author, April 27, 1994.

[100] Ibid.

[101] Ibid.

[102] Pachter, David. "History of Greenwood, MS Reform Synagogue." Greenwood Mississippi Public Library. (unpublished manuscript

[103] Weinberger, Selma home interview with author, 1987-2001, transcripts.

Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcripts with author, 1977-1998, Margery Kerstine Collection.

[104] “1900 United States Federal Census for H Gordon.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 806; Page: 17A; Enumeration District: 0025; FHL microfilm: 1240806, 33, Line 6. Accessed October 25, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[105] Adelson, Pauline Fink personal interview and transcript with author, October 31, 1999.

[106] “1900 United States Federal Census“ for Meyer Klina.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 1, Washington, Mississippi; Roll: 832; Page: 12B; Enumeration District: 0071; FHL microfilm: 1240832, 24, Line 77. Accessed October 25,, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry. com.

[107] “1910 United States Federal Census.” Year: 1910; Census Place: Beat 1, Bolivar, Mississippi; Roll: T624_733; Page: 10A; Enumeration District: 0001; FHL microfilm: 1374746, 19, Lines 34-35. Accessed October 11, 2015. http://interactive. ancestry.com.

[108] Adelson, Pauline Fink personal interview and transcript with author, October 31, 1999.

[109] Kaufman, Irwin interviews and transcript with author, November 18, 1993, Margery Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection.

[110] Weeks, Linton. “Outskirts,” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (P.O. Box 280, Clarksdale 38614): Carnegie Public Library, 1982, 84.

[111] Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcripts with author, 1977-1998, Margery Kerstine Collection. “City Saddened by Death today of Mr. Nachman,” Clarksdale Press Register (Microfilm Scrapbook ) (Clarksdale, Mississippi), January 7, 1947,

[112] Glassman, Julia Baker, unpublished genealogical paper, Julia Baker Glassman interview conducted by author, January, 2003.Baker, Ora, “A Memorable Interview, August 1916, 2. Accessed on July 8, 2014, http://interactive.ancestry.com/,

[113] Ibid.

[114] Ibid.

[115] Baker, Julia group meeting, September 15, 2008.

[116] Ibid.

[117] Adelson, Pauline Fink personal interview and transcript with author, October 31, 1999. Shackeroff, Marion Fink personal interviews and transcripts with author, October 30, 1999. Greenwood, Amy Morrow phone interview with author, October 28, 1999.

[118] Ibid.

[119] Fink, Alvin personal interview and transcripts with author, November 27, 1993. Autobiographical papers included which was accidentally destroyed.

[120] 1900 United States Federal Census 1, Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 5, Bolivar, Mississippi; Roll: 802; Page: 1A; Enumeration District: 0017; FHL microfilm: 1240802. 1, Lines 9-11. Accessed October 11, 2015. http://interactive. ancestry.com.

[121] Greenwood, Amy Morrow phone interview with author, October 28, 1999.

[122] Adelson, Pauline Fink personal interview and transcript with author, October 31, 1999. Shackeroff, Marion Fink personal interviews and transcripts with author, October 30, 1999.

[123] Ibid.

[124] Greenwood, Amy Morrow phone interview with author, October 28, 1999.

[125] Ibid.

[126] Fink, Alvin personal interview and transcripts with author, November 27, 1993. Autobiographical papers included which was accidentally destroyed.