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COTTON- - -FAMILY- - -RELIGION

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COTTON symbolizes daily activities related to productivity.

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RELIGION glues all parts together.

1900

January 16: Inauguration of Andrew H. Longino, the first Mississippi governor since the Civil War who was not a Confederate veteran.


[1]

April 30: Railroad engineer Casey Jones died in a train wreck near Vaughan in Yazoo County.[2]

September 3: Census population was 1,773.


[3]

During the interview with Alvin Fink he provide the data about trains during this decade:

Trains brought the salesmen as there were about five to six trains a day. The salesmen stayed overnight.The Illinois Central (IC) and the Yazoo and Mississippi Valley (YMV) ran through Clarksdale.

The “Yellow Dog” was a Columbus & Greenville (C&G) railroad which crossed with the Y&MV at Sunflower. That is the one that the black people used to ride to Clarksdale on. It went in above Tutwiler and down towards Greenwood to Vicksburg. Clarksdale was the head of it.

They ran trains from Memphis. It really started in Chicago. They had a train from Memphis to Vicksburg that used a certain route, a different route from that train that ran from Memphis to Jackson. The main line of the IC Railroaaod and the one that came through Clarksdale was the Y & MV. They use to have a cut out at Ruleville that went down to the riverside. It picked up at Rosedale and that way. But the Y&MV came through Clarksdale to New Orleans. When it got to Leland, it had to back into Greenville, and then came out; they didn’t have a turn chamber there.[4]

Bank of Clarksdale organized.[5]

New World Saloon on Issaquena Avenue

Not too many years ago, that part of Clarksdale located along and between Issaquena and Yazoo and just south of the Illinois Central Gulf Railroad tracks was popularly known as the “New World.”

The term now has fallen into disuse, but among ‘old line” Clarksdalians it still evokes memories of the city’s sometimes sinful past. Elderly black residents who still remember the neighborhood decline to talk about the New World and view it as blot on the city’s history.[6]

The late H. L. Talbert in his memoirs tells how the New World began.

Nelson Jones, one of the city’s earliest black residents, erected the first structure south of the railroad tracks, Talbert recalled.  “this was a two-story frame building, the lower floor used as a saloon, and the upper floor as a rooming house:” frequented exclusively by black people, according to Talbert.

The rooms on the upstairs level were ”like stalls in a livery stable, with each one just big enough for a single bed,” the Talbert memoirs relate, and Jones received just 25 cents a night from guests who used these facilities.

When Jones opened his hostelry, he “had a large sign erected on the front, which read ‘Nelson Jones New World” and this part of Clarksdale has been known by that name all these years, “Talbert recalled.[7]

Issaquena Avenue, south of the Illinois Central Gulf Railroad tracks. In the early 1900s, this street was avoided by nice ladies and was discussed guardedly in the best circles. Blues musician, W.C. Handy said this neighborhood was Clarksdale’s “red light district” when he lived here in the early 1900’s. After Handy made “the blues” a famous form of musical expression, the wandering street minstrels, who composed and sang the real folk blues, frequented the sidewalks of Issaquena Avenue, where they sat on the curbs or the ledges of store window to play their plaintive tunes for whatever change passersby were moved to give them. The tide of integration and desegregation that swept over the Delta in the 1960’s dispersed the crowds that flocked to Issaquena—especially on Saturday nights—and that changed the character of the street. Fires and the forces of nature also had their toll on Issaquena and the neighborhood today is in need of revitalization, but there is a little promise that better times will be coming soon.

Another description of the New World is included in W.C. Handy’s autobiography, Father of the Blues.

The famed blues composed and musician led the Knights of Pythias band in Clarksdale 8n 1903-1905. In his autobiography, published in 1941 he remembered the New World.

Handy wrote: “Across the tracks of the Y& MV Railroad in Clarksdale there was this section called the “New World.” It was the local red light district. To the New World came lush octoroons and quadroons from Louisiana, soft cream-colored fancy gals from Mississippi towns.” Some of the most affluent white men in the region, Handy suggests, visited with the pretty, “near-white imports” who frequented the latticed houses in the New World.

Also, says Handy, his b and was often hired to play for revelries that took place in the New World. “As musicians hired to play music rather than to discuss morals, we kept our mouths shut. We knew that big shot officials winked at the New World, but that was neither here nor there. . .What was important was that these rough-tinted girls, wearing silk stockings and short skirts, bobbing their soft hair and smoking cigarettes in that primera, long before these styles had gained respectability, were among the best patrons the orchestra had. They had employed us for big nights, occasions when social or political figures of importance were expected to dine and dance with their favorite Creole belles. Contacts made in these shady precincts often led to jobs in chaste great houses of the rich and well-to-do.”

Handy says engagements in the New World led him and his band to arrange and play tunes then known as “Boogies house music.” This kind of music was later to be popularly received, he says, but back in those days it was associated only with houses of questionable repute and people of tarnished morals.

As time passed, the environment of the New World changed. With the arrival of fast cars and good roads, affluent Deltans in quest of frivolous weekends tended to seek such diversions in Memphis, rather than “across the tracks.” The glitter and tinsel soon disappeared from the New World, and bootleg liquor and dice games replaced the more sophisticated sinning of earlier years.

A few years after Handy made “blues” music a cherished tradition of the southern United States, Clarksdale’s New World found itself a principal exponent of this new music form. Hoboes and wanderers dropped off freight trains or the backs of trucks to sit on the sidewalks of Issaquena Avenue and Fourth Street, singing their plaintive tunes to the accompaniment of their dilapidated guitars.

The sounds of the ‘live” blues singers often mingled with scratchy renditions of blues records played on old-fashioned phonographs. The New World stories featured low-priced merchandise that was often tawdry but still appealing in its own way. TI was all a part of the “new look” in the New World.

On Saturdays, a carnival-like gaiety prevailed on Issaquena and Fourth, and the streets filled with both shoppers and merrymakers.

The New World’s “red light” era began in the early 1900’s and lasted almost until the outbreak of World War I; traces of the area’s ‘blues” phase were noticeable until after World War II.

Over the years, fires have created gaps and vacancies in the New World vicinity, and businesses that once flourished there have moved to other sections. Today the New World is bereft of its once questionable uniqueness, and it has merged into the larger commercial district which surrounds it.[8]

BINDER

(1868, 1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

VICTOR

Victor immigrated to United States in 1900 or 1901.[9]

The 1910 Census said he was from Russia; however, he married Rachael. She lived with the Friedmans in Coahoma County until Victor returned to America. All the children were born in Russia. See 1897 website for more details. [10]

COHEN

(1868, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

SAMUEL and DAVID

1900 Census said he is a twenty-three years-old New York merchant living in Beat 4 of Coahoma County with his partner, David Cohen, who was nineteen years old and also born in New York[11] Adele Cohen-Kline said she didn’t believe this man was Fred’s brother. [12]

N. SAMUEL

Fred’s brother was N. Samuel Cohen who was born in 1897; died on 2/10/1958.[13] Fred had 2 brothers who were here.[14] (B. Hirsberg, 15)

Adele Cohen-Kline, Fred's wife before she married Sol Kline, said she didn’t believe this man was Fred’s brother. When Fred came, he brought his sister, Bertha.[15]

GORDON

(1910, 1920)

HARRY

Harry lived with his sister Lena and her husband Herman Jacobson. Harry was born in Russia in 1867. It says he had been married thirteen years but his wife was not with him as ge was working as a peddler.[16]

HIRSBERG

(1910, 1920, 1930)

JACOB

The 1920 U. S. Census reported Jacob Hirshberg was born in Russia in 1870.[17] Bernard 'Budgy”, Jacob's son remembered:

[Jacob] didn't get married until after he had moved to Friars Point. He met [Nellie] on a visit to Louisville. He had two sisters [living] in Louisville. Mama had a sister who also lived in Louisville. During one of their visits there, they met. Papa then visited in Evansville several times where she lived. They married in 1901 or 1902. Mama was born in Evansville, Indiana, in 1884. Well, Papa got married in his 30s; I think he was about 31 or 32 years old when he got married. [18]

Budgy continued,

After they got married they roomed and boarded for a period of time until the house was built for them. Life was very pleasant in Friars Point.…Mother wouldn’t keep kosher, plus the fact that it was impossible. I’ll tell you this, as far as Papa was concerned, whenever he would go to Memphis, if he had the opportunity, he’d…buy kosher meat and bring it home. It always tasted better than the meat…we brought locally. This was standard. He used any kosher butcher shop in Memphis. I do not know if there was a special one.

Mama was a free spirit, very cheerful person. She was raised in an Orthodox home. They kept kosher, but we didn’t. Her father was the cantor of his schul. He had a part-time, or he did it without compensation. And frankly, on rare occasions, we would have, without Papa’s knowledge, bacon and sausage. Mama was…was a very much-indulged person. [She] was a fanatic on cleanliness.…We never had less than three servants. The beds had to be town down; the mattresses taken out on the porch and the bedsprings thoroughly cleaned every week, every Monday. Mama didn't do the cooking. [She] did the supervising and was sure that all the servants had plenty to do. She kept them busy. And that was displayed in her later life. She became senile when she was about 87, 88 years old, and prior to that time she had been living in Friars Point by herself.[19]

My father read Torah every day. Unfortunately, he didn't pass this tradition on to his sons. I was never Bar Mitzvah. He would read Torah -- was that the right expression? - every day.…Of course, Saturday was the big business day, and if you had kept the store closed on Saturday, he would have been broke within two months. So you had no choice as far as your business was concerned, but we would go to Memphis for the holidays. Close the store, and we would all go up there. Papa would go to the Orthodox; Mama would go to the Temple. Second day, she would go to schul.[20]

[We wouldn’t come to the Clarksdale synagogue] because of these differences, Papa liked orthodox services. We had an arrangement here a great number of years that [the] Orthodox start their services at 7 o'clock in the morning and go to 10, then the Reform would take over from 10 until 12. The Orthodox would start back at 1 o'clock and go until 3 or 4 then the Reform came in. [Papa] just didn't like this 'put up' deal. So as a result it was only on rare occasions that he would ever come here.[21]

Basically…We observed Pesach (Passover). He didn't keep kosher. No way to get...well, you couldn't get kosher meat…except eight days of Pesach. And, uh, my father never ate [pork] knowingly. That was not true of my mother. During periods of time we would actually have ham, bacon, but Papa would not know it. In other words, we ate in shifts because of the store. Papa would eat first-during the week. Then, the rest of us would eat. And so, if we wanted bacon and eggs, Mama would fix us bacon and eggs. But he never knew it. Put it this way, he never raised the issue. He didn't like it. I'm sure he knew it was happening. [Mama prepared] pork [even though my] father didn't like it, [because] my mother was raised in an orthodox home  but she said you either go all the way or none at all. When they went out to eat,[or] when they went to Memphis, [or] came over here, whatever it may be, Mama would never order pork when Papa was there, but she [ate] shrimp which is just as bad isn't it? But, in deference to Papa, she wouldn't eat pork...when he was there. But, when he was not there, she would eat a barbecue sandwich, barbecued pork, a ham sandwich or anything else. No, [she was not] trying to break with her past. She didn't have the same feeling that we had.

My father was really, truly, a religious man, and he was a very virtuous person. I would say that my father was the most virtuous person I have ever known in my life. If he ever did a wrong, he did not know it. He had tremendous opportunity to take advantage of people. He was kind of trusting and because of his business dealings with the blacks and with the smaller farmers …was one of total trust, but we never exercised any advantage the truth the other way around.[22]

When asked this question in Rabbi Joshua Plaut interview: How did your parents decide what to transmit to the children --Reformed Judaism or Orthodox Judaism? Bernard answered:  

Well, you understand there was a dearth of children my age. I did go to Sunday School here. We'd come over here to Sunday School. My father sent my older brother Sol to Louisville – he sent him to high school in Louisville in order that he could be Bar Mitzvah, and he was. But after he got Bar Mitzvah, didn't mean anything, he came on back down here. He never came in with my father, no. He learned to read [Hebrew], after a fashion, enough to be Bar Mitzvah. We were raised strictly in a Gentile neighborhood area. All of my associates--I had no Jewish associates--there were no children my age. I didn't have any Jewish associates until I went to college. I went to Ole Miss and the University of Illinois.

[It was been reported that I heard] they actually knew where merchants were needed. They would tell new immigrants to head south to Arkansas or Mississippi because there were business opportunities. [My] father would go up to St. Louis in the late summer, in August or September. He would go there and then, of course, ultimately, he would go to New York.There was a connection between Rice-Stix, wholesaler in St. Louis, and the dry goods merchants down in Mississippi. [As they were] one of the big suppliers. My father did a lot of business with Rice-Stix. I don’t know if it was a Jewish company or not. The salesmen were not. The salesmen that I knew, the ones that worked this area, they were not Jewish. Rice-Stix, originally, the founders were probably Jewish. Fuller was a department store in St. Louis.  Sticks-Baer and Fuller. They had two Jews in there, at least.[23]

JIEDEL/JEIDEL

JAKE

March 18: [Jake] “left Tuesday for Memphis where he will accept a position in the wholesale house of I. Jiedal & Co. Mr. Jiedal has made many friends during his several years’ residence in Clarksdale, whose good wishes will go with him to his new home.”[24]

Jo Croner said she had heard of a bachelor in the Jiedal family. She didn't meet him and wasn't sure that was his name; she knew he lived somewhere in Mississippi. The 1900 and 1920 U. S. Census showed Jiedals in Memphis, Clarksdale and Helena Arkansas. B. H. Hirsberg said he remember the Jiedals from Rosedale.[25]

KAUFMAN

(1880, 1910, 1920, 1930)

MAX

Visited Memphis today [26]

KERSTINE

(1868, 1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

238 DELTA AVENUE

April 5: Newspaper article said “ Mr. A [Adolph). Kerstine is erecting a cottage on Yazoo Avenue.”[27] Adolph removed the house in 1900 and built a store between 1900 and 1920. 1900 census lists Adolph as merchant in Clarksdale who owned his house on 234 Yazoo Ave. [28] . He is not listed in the 1910 Mississippi' census.[29]

Adolph's first renter at 238 Delta was Koestler, who rented it. He had a bakery. He wasn't a Jewish. Koestler had just come over from Germany. He was a friend newly over from Adolph's hometown in Germany . Although Koestler was in the store space, he moved to Greenville and opened up this tiling place. He did tile designs for storefronts like the one Isidor had in the walkway approaching his front door.[30] “The signs embedded in mosaic are Koestler's skill.[31]

The second renters were John Diamond and Isidor Rosenblum. Rosenblum was Adolph's son-in-law. Then, the next renter was Harry Kantor.[32]

NACHMAN

(1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

AL:

The 1900 Census reported he was born Germany in October, 1864.[33]

March 8: Acting as Clerk for the Board of Alderman he put notice in Clarksdale Challenger regarding the request to report the failure of burning streetlights so that they could improve the services of the light. Co.[34]

March 10: Left Saturday for New York City when he expects to be joined by his sister, Mrs. Al Frank, of that city, on a trip to the Paris Exposition. Mr. Nachman will be absent the remainder of the summer visiting several countries on the continent before his return to America. His relatives have their home at Limberg, Germany, when he will spend a considerable part of his time.[35]

PACHTER

(1868, 1880, 1890, 1910, 1920)

HENRY L.

Copied from John Pachter's Genealogical narrative taken primarily from his father David's memoirs, “My Life and Times”:[36]

David Pachter and Sara, had four children: John, Annie, Henry and Abe. Henry and Abe were twins. Henry L. Pachter, my grandfather, was born in New York City in 1877 on Mott Street in the lower east side. He said he was expelled from school in the third grade for throwing an eraser at the teacher and never returned. According to the family story, great-grandfather David Pachter left New York City a poor man in search of work in Pennsylvania, but then disappeared. The family believed he drowned in the tragic Johnstown, Pennsylvania, flood of May 31, 1889, in which more than 2,000 souls perished when an old earthen dam burst, sending an avalanche of water down the mountain above the town.[37] Left alone to care for her four children, Sara was saved by family connections in Mississippi – a marriage between two first cousins, Sara’s nephew George and niece Mary [Richberger].

Uncle John had a farm about five miles east of Webb at Buzzard’s Bayou. He eventually made his way to the hamlet of Webb, Mississippi (population approximately 500, then and now) where he owned a dry goods store and a cotton farm.…My dad's farm was west of Webb about six miles at Blue Lake, Around 1900, Henry (now age 23) and his older brother John moved to Webb, about seventy miles south of Rich. [John's] general dry goods store [was] called Pachter’s, [and] Henry worked as salesman.][38]…John had a family clothing store and bought much of his merchandise from wholesale firms in St. Louis. Train mailed shipped goods in large wooden boxes.

(The townspeople had trouble spelling and pronouncing the name (the “h” is silent), and many referred to him as “Mr. Henry.” He also owned a cotton farm about ten miles west at Blue Lake. (As late as 1982, it was still called the Pachter place, even though it had passed from the family more than fifty years earlier.)[39]

RICHBERGER

(1870, 1880, 1890, 1910)

GEORGE

June 6: Visiting Clarksdale from Jonestown.[40]

Hirsberg said the Richbergers lived in Jonestown. He was a banker in Jonestown, and possibly owned a big share of it. I do not remember whether or not he was connected with the Planters Bank. I have forgotten what happened but I did hear my father talk about the problems George Richberger had.[41]

George and Mr. Cutrer were real good friends. They use to do gambling together. They use to play poker, a bunch up at the Cutrer's house. I remember him telling me about the times they played poker all night at the Cutrer house.[42]

Weeks reported,

In 1888, with J. W. Cutrer acting as attorney, a group of men bought out the “Little Bank” as it was called.…[They] callad their enterprise the Clarksdale Bank and Trust.…By 1895 the bank was floundering…[and] shut its doors.[43]

Two banks emerged that actually later merged as the Citizen Savings Banks. Weeks continued, “Al Nachman served as cashier. Nachman resigned and George Richberger of the Bank of Jonestown took his place.[44]

In another section of the

Weeks also reported:

The Jonestown Eagle—edited by the town's major, George Richberger. According to Abernathy.

Besides being a newspaper editor and major of Jonestown, Richberger also was a bank official. In the early 1900s he was found guilty of embezzlement in connection with his bank duties and he soon thereafter left the county.: [45]

SACK

(1868, 1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

AARON:

March 3 He returned to Clarksdale…from Marion, Illinois, when he has been engaged in business for some months past. We understand it is Mr. Sack’s intention to resume his mercantile business in our city.”[46]

March 15 The paper reported he had purchased the Bazaar of G. P. Clark & Co. and will take charge in the future.” [47]

1901

KLINE

MYER

While Mr. Kline went to Alligator in 1901, it is only in recent years that his business has expanded to it present proportions.[48] (“Quick Returns from Delta Lands”, Illustrated Clarksdale and Coahoma County, 17)

1902

(Taken from an unknown dated Facebook or email)

November 16:The Washington, D.C. Washington Star ran a cartoon which depicted President Theodore Roosevelt refusing to shoot a bear in the Mississippi Delta, an incident from which the Teddy Bear originated.[49]

Here are statistics about life in 1902 (Taken from an unknown dated Facebook or email):

The average life expectancy in the US was forty-seven.

Only fourteen percent of the homes in the US had a bathtub.

Only eight percent of the homes had a telephone.

A three-minute call from Denver to New York City cost eleven dollars.

There were only 8,000 cars in the US and only 144 miles of paved roads.

The maximum speed limit in most cities was 10 mph.

Alabama, Mississippi, Iowa, and Tennessee were each more heavily populated than California. With a mere 1.4 million residents, California was only the 21st most populous state in the Union.

The tallest structure in the world was the Eiffel Tower.

The average wage in the US was 22 cents an hour.

The average US worker made between $200 and $400 per year.

A competent accountant could expect to earn $2000 per year, a dentist $2,500 per year, a veterinarian between $1,500 and $4,000 per year, and a mechanical engineer about $5,000 per year.

More than ninety-five percent of all births in the US took place at home.

Ninety percent of all US physicians had no college education. Instead, they attended medical schools, many of which were condemned in the press and by the government as "substandard."

Sugar cost four cents a pound. Eggs were fourteen cents a dozen. Coffee cost fifteen cents a pound.

Most women only washed their hair once a month and used borax or egg yolks for shampoo.

Canada passed a law prohibiting poor people from entering the country for any reason.

The five leading causes of death in the US were:

1. Pneumonia and influenza

2. Tuberculosis

3. Diarrhea

4. Heart disease

5. Stroke

The American flag had 45 stars. Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Hawaii and Alaska hadn't been admitted to the Union yet.

The population of Las Vegas, Nevada was thirty.

Crossword puzzles, canned beer, and iced tea hadn't been invented.

There was no Mother's Day or Father's Day.

One in ten US adults couldn't read or write. Only 6 percent of all Americans had graduated from high school.

Marijuana, heroin, and morphine were all available over the counter at corner drugstores. According to one pharmacist, Heroin clears the complexion, gives buoyancy to the mind, regulates the stomach and the bowels, and is, in fact, a perfect guardian of health.

Eighteen percent of households in the US had at least one full-time servant or domestic.

There were only about 230 reported murders in the entire US.

BINDER

(1868, 1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

JULIUS DAVID

Parents were Isadore/Rachael Leah. Immigrated with his mother in 1902. They came through the port of New Orleans. The other children were born in America. [50]

WILL

Married Dora Hendler from Meridian, MS on 3/1/1911. No more information regarding the immigration date. He started out as a peddler then worked as a cattle buyer and butchered the cattle; at one time he had a meat market and grocery. \They lived in several towns in Mississippi: Minter City, Marks, Duncan and Greenwood, as well as Helena, Arkansas.[51]

CHILDREN (see data in Issaquena Avenue Memoirs (Lot 41 and 5, 6, 7 manuscript when it is published in 2016).

1) LEON

2) HERMAN

FINK

(1910, 1920, 1930)

ITSAK/JACOB/JAKE

In 1886 Jake was the youngest of seven children who were born in Vilnius, Poland, a part of the Russian empire. His father, Abraham, a grain and coal merchant, immigrated and established himself in New York City. When approximately two-years old in 1888, his mother Leah, immigrated to New York with the seven children.

CHILDREN

1) Charles (Fink) Cohen [interviews established that he was not the same Charles Cohen of Coahoma, nor was the name “Cohen” explained].

2) Celia Fink Wolf

3) Ida Fink Sussman

4) Ruben (Frank) Fink Memphis, TN

5) William Fink, Memphis TN

6) Joseph (Joe) Fink[52]

The family established life in a cold water flat on the lower east side of New York. His father developed pneumonia about 1891/1892 and died when Jake was six or seven years ol. He remained in school through the 3rd grade. He was a very avid reader and quick learner, especially in business, commerce, figures and legal matters. His sister, Celia married Bernard Wolff and moved to Mississippi.[53]

In 1902, Jack was approximately sixteen-years old. He boarded a train in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,to travel to seek his fortune either in the same town or near where his elder brother and a sister and her husband were living. Not for Jake the life of the itinerant Jewish peddler roaming the countryside with a pack on his back. His siblings promised him room and board as well as a job in their dry goods store in Beulah Landing.[54]

When Jake Fink came to the Mississippi Delta he was self-assured and dressed like a dandy in a dark suit and felt hat. The young man stepped off the train into the smothering heat and humidity of an early fall day in Shelby, MS. In those days the railroad in Shelby was built on a high embankment and there was a level area to a light from the train. It was muddy as he got off the train, and they had used board walks and stair plants across the ditches on each side of the railroad to get to the street or to stores on both sides. [55]

Jake decided to start by looking in Shelby, 23 miles south of Clarksdale because his brother Joe moved there the year before[56]. Jake cocked his derby and looked around at the low, wooden buildings lining the town’s muddy streets. He crossed the ditch on a plank, crunched down the narrow gravel thoroughfare, and spotted the post office where he hoped to find someone who knew the whereabouts of his brother Joe and to pick up his mail. All of a sudden and before he knew it, somebody pushed the derby hat down over his head. He turned around. There were all these country yokels that were having a great laugh and much sport from his discomfort of being a city boy. He pulled off the derby and put it back on keeping his eye peeled for whomever would touch his hat to push it down again. All of a sudden he caught a flash of somebody reaching out to hit his hat. He swung around and caught the man right on the button. It was a much older person so he dropped like a shot. After they didn’t give him much trouble.[57]

Somehow Jake's reputation traveled before him as a fighter. Down through the years Alvin, his son, met people who said Jake could be awfully tough when he had to be. He stayed an unknown time with his brother Joe in Shelby.[58]

Jake traveled on down to Beulah Landing where he moved into the house with his sister and went to work in their store for several seasons. Fiction soon arose between brother and brother-in-law, both of whom were strong-minded individuals. Bernard, a shrewd merchant, cast his eye around and found a way to get Jake out of his household and expand his own business interest at the same time. He opened a store in the neighboring town of Duncan, a hamlet close to Clarksdale, Beulah Landing and Shelby and sent Jake to run the new store. All of these towns were within a 20 mile radius of each other. They used horse back and buggies between Duncan and Shelby but used trains to travel between Beulah and Shelby. Trains only ran North and South with no cross trains in that area.[59]

LEVINSON/LEVINE

(1880, 1890, 1910, 1920)

FANNIE AND MORRIS

Fannie born in Russia in 1866 but her tombstone says 1859. She immigrated in 1904 with the couple's three children. Morris born in 1862 immigrated to US from Russia to Clarksdale one year earlier. Morris was a dry goods merchant by 1910.[60] Her brother W. Levine and sister Mrs. Rose Kaplan, Miami, Florida, attended Fanny's funeral in 1928.[61] No evidence found when Morris died.

CHILDREN

1) Louis, born 1903

2) Jake, born 1897

3)                  Anne, born 1902 ANNIE (see Aronson) Osherwitz, Tutwiler

4) Mrs. Julius Ross, Indianola, MS.

5) Mrs. H. D. Kantor

6) Harry

NACHMAN

(1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

AL

Al Nachman was elected Major. He was the only Jewish mayor of Clarksdale, MS. [62]

[Nachman] was the city clerk before becoming mayor. [As] a realtor [he] operated from a desk in the Boyle and Lanham Office on Yazoo. He is remembered for the people he helped during the Great Depression. At his request he was cremated and his ashes scattered over his adopted land Coahoma County.[63] 

Sam Abrams said,

Nachman was very civic-minded. He was in the insurance business. [He] furnished some money for the first house [my family] lived in, not the one on Catalpa but the one on Madison in Riverton where everybody lived. Nachman had a very low interest rate on it. He was very charitable.…[He] put Buddy Brocato, who had an Italian heritage, through college. He became a lawyer.[64]

PACHTER

(1868, 1880, 1890, 1910, 1920)

HENRY L.

Copied from John Pachter's genealogical narrative and primarily from his father's [David] memoirs, “My Life and Times” who wrote:[65]

Henry married in 1902, built a home, and began a family of Southern Jews now in its fourth generation. Lived in Webb, MS and married Ruby Hyman, St. Louis, MO. Her mother was Hedwig R. Hyman, [and father was Pincus.]

My father built a very small house he and mother lived in during the early 1900's. Much of the framing in the house was made from the wooden crates from goods received at store. When David Pachter visited the house in 1979, the owner told him he had found a board with the name Henry L. Pachter, Webb, MS. stenciled on it, apparently about 75 years old. As for the house, the large front porch, the fence around the yard is gone, along with the two story divided garage with servants quarters on the back of the lot. His father built a long row of small adjoining rooms. One was a washhouse with wire around the upper one-third of the walls and roosts for the chickens. At the end of the yard was an outdoor toilet for the kitchen help. Between the garage and the row of sheds was a light for the home. As a boy, I remember helping my dad once a week flushing the tank with water. Then we would put fresh crystals in a container and refill the water tank. After a while, this would build up a gas piped to each room in the house with one or more fixtures in each room. It made a soft light that I though had a magical glow that was easy to read by. My fondest memories of the light were probably overshadowed by its actual effectiveness as reading light.

Near these buildings was a large iron pot about 3 feet across with iron legs that raised the iron pot 6-8 inches off the ground. Every Monday morning, Eunie, the Negro house girl, would build a wood fire under the pot and wash the family clothes and sheets. The fire would blaze and vast amounts of smoke would rise from the wood fire. In the midst of the smoke would be Eunie stirring the clothes with a used broomstick, having put soap and bluing in the water to get the clothes clean and white. This was a laborious process for a large family that included my mother and father, then three children, my mother's brother and her father. After mother was satisfied the clothes were clean, they were moved to the washhouse where they were rinsed until all soap and water was out. Then all were hung to dry on clothesline strung out in the back yard with wooden clothespins. Later in the day, everything was ironed and folded and put away. So Monday was another full day for Eunie and mother. While the time and effort required for this today is still considerable, it is minute compared to what was necessary in the days of my youth in Webb. We did get electric lights in Webb but I don't recall a washer and dryer.

[My dad had a commissary on his back lot where he sold staples to his farm families or "hands as they were called. This was necessary in those days as travel was difficult with dirt roads by mule and wagons and it provided the farm worker the basic food stuff on a once a month trip. He bought much of his merchandise from wholesale firms in St. Louis. Train mailed shipped goods in large wooden boxes.

Credit was a way of life when I was a little boy. The husband provided the living and paid off expenses. The wife ran the household. She charged her food bill at the local grocery store, charged her clothes [Sam2] and other clothing allowance could only be used at a store in Webb. The farmer had arranged to credit him until the cotton was ginned and sold, usually some time from September until December. For this extra work and money, the merchant added on a carrying charge percentage agreed to by both merchant and farmer. The share worker received his "furnish money and allowance" each month until the cotton was ginned. Then he Then he received part of the seed money in September--October and November, as long as the cotton was ginned. The farmer also had an arrangement with a doctor and dentist to tend to the workers medical needs during the year. He also furnished any money for other worries, just a hard life working mules to plow and to plant and pick the cotton by hand.[66]

The black people out on the farms would trap small animals and bring the skinned hides in for cash. There were plenty of animals then, as there were lots of trees and lakes. He was a small, quiet person. Hhe was always the first to the dinner table when mother called us to eat and the last to leave.

There was always a school nearby and always a church. The church and the social life connected with it played a big part in the Negro's life.

After the cotton was picked, ginned and sold, the farmer would calculate the cash received for each sharecropper's part. The percentage of this agreed on at the start of the year, less furnished him during the year. The rest was the sharecropper's part in cash. This was generally done in December. Then about the first of the year, after settlement time came negotiating for the coming year furnished along with the bonus or "advanced cash" against the crop not yet planted. This always took the best part of a week and was a very trying time for my dad. Almost always there was one or two out of the thirty or forty families whom he couldn't reach an agreement with and would more to another farm. The new farmer would have to pay off any debt still owed the original farmer. When my dad lost a family he would have to find one to replace him with or perhaps give it to a grown son on his farm then only enough to start on his own.

Many farms had several generations of the same family whose life span was on only one farm. The arrangement left the head of the sharecropper's family free of money worries. Assuming the agreed amount was adequate and assured the farmer of enough workers to adequately made a crop on a given acreage. Hhis share cropping arrangement lasted, in principal, until about the early 1950s when mechanical farming came into prominence in the Delta.

When I was about four years old I had ridden out to Blue Lake with my dad. It was during cotton-picking time. As usual, I was playing with some small Negro boys, Pica ninnies, as they were called. The cotton bolls were fluffy and open and the cotton plants were taller than my head. We were playing "gin" and were removing the cottonseeds from the cotton by hand, when one of the Negro boys dared me to put a cottonseed up my nose, which I did. It didn't seem to bother me until we got home. That night when my mother bathed me and cleaned the "buggers" out of my nose the fact that I had a cottonseed in my nose came out. I told her what I put in my nose. that

Uncle John and Aunt Minnie lived in Webb just a block from my parents. I spent many a happy hour there. Their maid, Earabell, who was Eunie's older sister, taught me card games, like coon can, playing in the little one room cottage on the back lot she lived in. Often I ate meals in their home. As Aunt Minnie never had any children, I was like an adopted child to them. My dad used to tell the story that he was expelled from the third grade in New York City for throwing an eraser at his teacher and quit school. He loved to read and was self-educated. He played a mandolin by heart and kept it at Webb in a love seat in the living room. He used to play it in Webb when I was little.

John Pachter had a boxer named "Bowser." He was a dignified, aloof dog except he loved John. At the age of four, Bowser and I were about the same height. He loved to lick my face after I had eaten one of Earabelle's jelly biscuits.

Uncle John had a concrete walk put down in the backyard from the back porch to Earabelle’s and other out houses when I was about four. There was a picture of David in a white shirt and shorts with a white cap made out of a flower sack. I put my footprints and date in it. Note: the manuscript said he returned in 1970 to find this, but did not because he realized someone was watching him, so he left.

David Pachter's grandfather Pincus Hyman lived in Webb until 1924. He talked about being a mule tender as a boy for a Confederated Artillery Battery in the Civil War. When he lived in Webb, he shared a room with his son, Sam Hyman, who was Ruby Pachter's youngest brother. Sam lived there until he married at age 35 (no year given)

David described his Grandfather (Occurred between 1906, after his mother died and 1924 when he left to live in St. Louis. Grandpa shaved with a straight razor and often cut himself, coming to breakfast with a piece of toilet paper to stop the blood. He sold animal hides in the back of my father's store for a little pocket money.

After the evening meal in the summer time, my father would take the family riding in our eight passenger Studebaker. Whenever Daddy said, 'Let's go for a ride,' Grandpa would already be in his favorite seat in the car. My daddy jokingly said Grandpa came to this country at the age of five before he could work and retired at the age of 52 before he started working.

Grandpa loved to smoke cigars. As he grew older, he would pass wind walking around the house. That would burn my daddy something awful. Mother would say, 'Now Henry, he's old.' As for me as a little boy, I though it amusing."

1903

History of floods in the Delta: Flooding occurred from Cairo, Illinois, all the way down to the Gulf of Mexico. Many levees along the way failed, but work done on the local levees paid off and spared the region from the massive damage that occurred elsewhere.[67]

Started in 1903 and incorporated in June 1904, the Delta Hospital of Clarksdale began in a one -story frame at 221 DeSoto. It was maintained by the King's Daughters Circle of Clarksdale. of Brief summary of tge hospital movement in Clarksdale by an anonymous writer was mounted on the Flowers Wall across from the mirroring nurses’ station.[68]

Father of the Blues.

W. C. Handy's 1941 autobiography describes how he became focused on composing blues while living on Issaquena Avenue between 1903 and 1904. The famed blues composed and musician led the Knights of Pythias band in Clarksdale in 1903-1905. This year he wrote his first blues composition. Prior to this blues singers composed on-the-go and never actually wrote the song on paper.[69]

BAKER/FRANK

(1880, 1890, 1910, 1920)

MORRIS

Morris was born to Ora and his second wife. Morris went to Hebrew School in their town Shkudvile, Russia, and as you know, he learned Arithmetic and other subjects there, too. He was not allowed to go to the public schools. [70]

Uncle Harry spoke good German. Celia Friedman said he might have learned it from neighbors, mixing his Yiddish in. These neighbors moved to the towns from Germany. Morris’s older sister; was a good seamstress as well as being good with her hands in doing handwork. [71]

He came to this country at the age of 16 (1903). His brother, Harry was twenty years younger than his brother, Frank. See Jerome Magdovitz’s tape also for some of this data that talked about selling horses to the Czar.[72]

Morris married Nellie's younger sister, Ida.[73] Their father, Harry Frank married Sarah Frank and immigrated to this country in 1885. but evidence as to when the family came to Clarksdale is not available. He married Sarah Frank[74]

CHILDREN

(1) ALMA

(2) JULIA

(3) SAMUEL

(3) HARRIET

 

(Photo Julia Baker Glassman)

FRIEDMAN

(1868, 1910, 1920, 1930)

MAX

Max married Rosa Frankle from New Madrid, MO in 1903. She was born in Union City, Tennessee. She always remained very active in Clarksdale organizations.The 1920 U. S. Census said Max immigrated in 1896 from Russia. March 15: He was married to Rosa Frankle from New Madrid, MO and had two children. Married Rose Frankle who was born in 1886 and raised New Madrid, MO. Max was a hides and fur salesman..[75]

CHILDREN

1) ANNE (Cissy) born 1907

2) MORRIS born 1905

3)                 ROBERT STANLEY after 1910[76]

MAY

(1910, 1920, 1930)

Both Harry born in Lithuania in 1876 and his wife Sarah Nevett born in 1877 grew up and married in Lithuania. They had their first daughter, Rosa May in Lithuania in 1903. In the 1920 U. S. Census, Harry was a grocery merchant. The family immigrated in 1903.

CHILDREN

1)            Rosa May born 1903

2)                  Mike born 1907

3) Lenabelle born 1908

4) Sidney born 1913

5) Edith born 1911

6) Abe born 1916[77]

1904

First automobile was seen on Clarksdale’s streets[78].

ABRAMS

(1910, 1920, 1930)

 

 

 

 

 

DAVE

Dave obtained a good education in Russia. Several years after his marriage, he left Russia and went to England, seeking greater opportunities. He spent a few years there and finally came to America in either 1903 or 1904. He moved some time later, from New York to Drew, Mississippi, but remained there only a short time.[79]

He became acquainted with some Jews in Drew, Mississippi. His, son, Dave said it was Olansky. They gave him stuff to peddle. In those in those days the Jews all peddled. He didn’t peddle from New York, but after he arrived in the South. After he started the store he sent for his wife, Ethel B, Lena and Sam.[80] He found a store in Duncan and established a business enterprise there.[81]

Sam said, “See I hadn’t seen my Daddy. I was conceived in England when my Daddy was in England. My mother [Ethel B] went back to Russia and her Daddy died just before we got passport to come over here. I didn’t see my Daddy until I was four years old.”[82]

BINDER

(1868, 1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

JOSEPH H.

Shows he immigrated in 1904 with wife and one son.[83] He married Ashna Ovsejobitch.[84]

VICTOR

When Victor returned he joined his family and became a peddler. He opened a store of his own. The first one was located on 3rd street. Victor moved this store to Issaquena Street in the late 1930s or early 1940s. The couple had 7 children who lived beyond infancy. The family originally lived in the area of Clarksdale were the Joe Binders lived.[85]

FINK

(1910, 1920, 1930)

The association with B. Wolf only lasted a couple more years. This arrangement between Jake and Bernard became the old trouble. Jake told his son, Alvin, about the time Bernard rode his horse to Duncan to see Jake on business and found him, with the sun halfway up the morning sky, still asleep in the living quarters above the store. Bernard was irritated to find his shopkeeper lazing away in bed when there was good money to be made. He stood in the street below and threw rocks against the window to wake up Jake. Young Jake was persuaded to seek his fortunes elsewhere. Now eighteen oyears old,. the young dandy said his good-byes inIN Coahoma County and traveled South to New Orleans.[86]

FRIEDMAN/RICHBERGER

(1868, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ROSA & JACOB

Rosa was a mother and a homebody. She added:

When she finished school, they were married just that early. I think she was eighteen when she married [Jacob] in Memphis. George Richberger was a banker at that time, because I remember… gifts she got at that time were so beautiful. Her daddy was a banker. So, everyone gave her such beautiful gifts. I remember that comment but I don’t remember except that she was a very accomplished musician. Daddy played the violin, and she played the piano. My brothers played. On Sunday nights, people/crowds use to come to the house. We never had to invite anyone. They just knew that it was Sunday night, and they could come to the house.[87]

1905

Earl Brewer announced his candidacy for the governorship of Mississippi.

H. B. Heidelberg appointed Superintendent of Clarksdale’s public school, than a frame structure on Sharkey Avenue adjoining the present Episcopal Church.[88] This school was a originally a two room frame building with 4 rooms added. At this time there were three teachers and sixty-five children.[89]

FACTS ABOUT LIFE IN 1905[90]

Average life expectancy was 47 years old.

Only 14% of the home in the U.S. had a bathtub.

Only 8% of the homes had a telephone

Minute call from Denver to New York City was $11.

Maximum speed limit in most cities was 10mph.

The tallest structure in the world was the Eiffel Tower.

Average wage in the U.S. was 22 cents/per hour.

The average worker made between $200 and $400/per year.

More than 95% of all births in the U.S. took place at home.

Most women only washed their hair once a month and used borax or egg yolks for shampoo.

Sugar cost 4 cents/per pound; eggs were 14cents a dozen; coffee was 15cents a pound.

The American flag had 45 stars. (Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Hawaii and Alaska not admitted yet to the Union.

There was no Mother’s or Father’s Day.

Two out of every 10 adults couldn’t read or write; only 6% of all Americans had graduated from high school.

There were about 230 reported murders in the entire U.S.

RICHBERGER/FRIEDMAN/NELSON

(1868, 1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ROSA RICHBERGER and JAKE FRIEDMAN

Rosa married Jacob Friedman married in 1905. The 1910 U. S. Census says Jake was born in Hungary in 1880; however, during the interview, Gertrude, his daughter, said, “ [I] heard that [my dad] was born in Hungary but, I never knew if this was true or not. He immigrated in 1895. The 1910 Census (Jonestown, MS) says he is a dry goods retail merchant. They had four children; however, two children were listed in the 1910 U. S. Census:[91]

CHILDREN:

(1)     HERMAN LEON born 1906 in Memphis, Tennessee

Gertrude’s brother died before the author's interview with her She said, “Of course, I only knew them when I was in Jonestown, but my grandparents were in Memphis. We would go there to visit. Herman was not married; however, he always went with Amelia Weil in Memphis.”

I have a daughter who is younger of the two, Betty Rose Nelson Simon. Her daughter, has two children: The oldest one is named Sarah Elizabeth Simon and the other one is named Deborah Rose Simon. We call her Debbie.[92]

(2) GERTRUDE born 1909 in Memphis, Tennessee[93]

I adopted a son; his name is Edward (Couldn’t understand middle name which is her husband’s name too) Nelson. My son is married, and he has a daughter. Her name is Holly Amanda but we call her Holly.[94]

(3) MILTON Married but NOTE: (tape went out; so I missed this part) B-Side starts with: The daughter’s name is Naomi and [Margie thinks Gertrude remembered that the wife’s name was Marion].

(4) EMANUEL: the youngest son, my brother, is living in Memphis no, and he never married.

Both Rosa's and Jake's families lived there in Memphis, Tenneessee. Uncle Dan lived there. Uncle Abe, I remember very little about him. I was thinking, Rosa, Estella (can’t think of her last name). That was Abe’s daughter.[95]

Jake was not related to anyone in Clarksdale or Jonestown. His relatives were in Memphis. His sister was Brode, who lived in Memphis. Selma Brode was married and all her children live up there. He moved to Jonestown when he married Rosa.[96]

1906

First steel bridge across the Sunflower River at Second Street is erected.[97]

CONGREGATION B’NAI ISRAEL

1st Rabbi in Clarksdale: Rev. Lubchansky was there until 1912.[98]

In 1906, there were reported seventeen congregations of Jews with 746 families.)

POWERS

(1920, 1930)

MIKE

Michael Powers (Mike), the son of Mr. and Mrs. Sam Powers, was born in Nashville, TN. Before arriving in Clarksdale, he worked in Nashville and Birmingham, AL, New York and Boston and Shreveport, LA. He married in 1901.

Mike Powers, CEO of Powers and Company, came to Clarksdale as the manager of the ladies ready-to-wear department of W.S. Campbell’s store about 1906.[99]

Mike did not participate in the Jewish society and very few knew he was Jewish.[100]

SMALL

(1868, 1910, 1920, 1930)

JOHN

John was born in 1872 The 1900 U.S. Censes shows he was born in Poland and immigrated in 1886. In 1900 he was a farmer in Tallahatchie County and living with Jennie Weiss, his wife for five years. She was born 1886 in Poland and immigrated in 1901. According to Selma, he moved to Clarksdale in 1906 and opened a shop at the intersection of Delta and Third Street.[101]

CHILDREN

(1) ISADORE born in 1907 in Mississippi

(2) LILLIAN SMALL COHEN

Selma said that John Small wanted to marry her mother, Rosa Kerstine He gave her a diamond ring. Rosa decided not to marry him and gave it back to him. He refused to take it. She later gave it to her sister. Lillie who passed it on to her daughter, Evelyn, not Rosa's daguther, Selma. John married Jennie Weiss. [102]

WOOLBERT

(1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

FREDA

Because there was no high school beyond the 10th grade, when Freda graduated from Itta Bena School, she went to Mississippi Institute Training for Women. (MSCW, Columbus, MS)[103] Besides Freda, Rosa Kerstine and Lenora Sack had to travel to Columbus by train. They would ride the C&G Railroad to Greenwood.[104]

1907

Another source reported that 353 Jews were settled in 46 towns in Mississippi between 1907 and 1917 [105]

Four Clarksdale hotels included: (1) The Alcazar, (2) Railroad Hotel, (3)Mosby Hotel and the (4) Wingfield House.[106]

Tuttle Hotel opened by Arthur C Tuttle and his wife They bought the one and a half-story frame house from John Clark family, and they expanded. He worked for the Levee Board as an accountant, later he served as the town clerk, and still later worked as bookkeeper for Johnson Harlow Lumber Company (This was J. H. Johnson and Will Harlow). He also was secretary of the Elks Club. Mrs. Tuttle eventually expanded her business to include other hotels in Milan, TN, Humboldt, TN Paris, Huntington, TN and Crystal Springs, MS.[107]

The Alcazar was a frame building in those days, and the Tuttle Hotel backed toward the Landry Store on Delta. The streets were neither paved nor graveled. Facing Tuttle House, across Yazoo was Mrs. Margaret Wingfield’s Boarding House; she was the mother of the late Mrs. Annie Cage. Between Tuttle House and the Alcazar was the home of the early Kerstine family. Mrs. Mossye Smith lived in a small green house next to the Kerstine home. She never remarried because the terms of her husband’s will, Mossye could stay in the house only if she remained singe.[108]

Across from Mrs. Smith on Yazoo was the Mosby Hotel and farther out near the railroad on the left was Crawley’s Ice Factory. A livery stable was on the site of the McWilliams Building.[109]

The railroad was Clarksdale’s life line in those days. Actually, a traveler could go almost anywhere on a railroad. Mrs. Tuttle travelled by train to see after her chain of hotels.[110]

The Sunday evening train brought traveling men to Clarksdale. Carrying their bats, they headed for the hotel of their choice. Early Monday morning found them at the livery stable renting a horse or horse and buggy for the run to Sherard, Friars Point., Farrell and Stovall. They took orders for groceries and dry goods, which were shipped by rail from Memphis or maybe New Orleans. Tuesday found these drummers on No. 1 (railroad) to Gunnison, Marigold, Cleveland, etc. [111]

A well remembered visitor to Tuttle House was W. C. Handy, who with his band sat on the front steps of the hotel and played to the crowds that gathered round. When Handy had finished, he passed his hat for money. The notes of his famous ‘St. Louis Blues” and other songs drifted along Yazoo many times [112]

Clarksdale had a real opera house on Second Street (between Delta and Yazoo) with box seats in those days. Road shows presenting light operas, “The Desert Song,” The Student Prince” and other exciting musicals of the period were presented. For these occasions they would rent Mrs. Tuttle’s lovely Ivers and Pond parlor piano. Church revivals were also held in the Opera House as well as other assemblies such as political meetings …. Clarksdale played host to some minor league baseball teams who stayed at the hotels.

CONGREGATION B’NAI ISRAEL

September 14: “Our Jewish Population observed Rosh Hoshannh, the 5668 Jewish New Year Monday and Tuesday. All their houses are closed. Next Wednesday will be Yom Kipper and they will be closed all day.” [113]

KERSTINE

(1868, 1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ISIDOR:

Corinne said that the first schoolhouse was on Sharkey Street the Woman's Club. When Isidor was in school, he used to get out of school by agreeing to go with another boy down to the Sunflower River to get water for the school. They obviously had no good plumbing to bring the water into the schoolhouse for the teacher. It was quite a walk down to the river to get the water. He told Corinne that they had stoves in every room in the school.[114]

Shackeroff

(1910)

Edwin Shackeroff's father peddled down to Mississippi with his brother-in-law, a cousin or his father-in-law. They probably peddled to Cincinnati, Louisville, St. Louis and Memphis. They opened a store in Batesville.[115]

 

WOOLBERT

(1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ABRAHAM & YETTA

Alvin Fink said,

The family moved to Clarksdale about 1907 or 1908. My grandfather had moved to Warren, AR. I don’t know the reason why, but he was a merchant there. … And Yetta told my grandfather. ' I don’t need to die in Arkansas when all my sisters and relatives are over in MS. I want to go there myself. I am not going to live here.'

Freda said that they crossed the river practically in a rowboat. My grandmother had all the money and valuables in a little suitcase It wasn’t in any boat. Somebody got it back, and they went through. By that time Abraham went to Itta Bena, I think it was. My mother used to tell stories about that in those days, they had kids back when they didn’t have anything. And my grandfather in his store had to move his stock of wood up on the high shelves. The water, the store was right on the banks of the river, the back of the stores. And the water would come in and she said she would recall my grandfather waiting on customers in a rowboat. That was one of those little vignettes I could tell you. [116]

Before they moved to Oakhurst, they lived at the junction of Third Street and Sunflower. The first house on Street dead-ends into Sunflower Street at the Sunflower River. My grandparents lived in a house next door until 1909 when they built the house on Oakhurst.[117]Abraham had his store where they cut the alley-way to the restaurant. It was where Holcomb, started making that shopping center there, they cut that walkway through. Well, those two stores belonged to Abraham. Later, the Joffey’s had a store there. Freda had taken music and/or violin lessons from someone in Memphis for years.[118]

1908

When M.J. Bouldin was mayor of the town, the population was estimated at 5,500. Randolph Gage was the "Fancy Grocer of the Delta" and they boasted four banks: (1) the First National, (2) the Clarksdale Savings, (3) the Planters Bank (origin in Natchez, in 1840s), and(4) the Bank of Clarksdale.

The Crystal was the exclusive refreshment parlor," J.O. Baugh was sheriff and lots were being sold in Oakhurst, a new subdivision owned by Ellerton G. Dorr.

This was the year when the Clarksdale Fire Department, which last November, 2-celebrated its 50th anniversary, was organized with a fire chief, John "Jack" Donohue and one fireman.

They used a two -wheeled hand drawn cart, which held 30 gallons of chemical and 100 feel of hose. Later, they gained speed with a wagon and a mule, which was affectionately known as "Old Jim."[119]

The Sharkey Street School burned down. School was then conducted in a skating rink where Joe Waters’ tin shop is now located. The Oakhurst School at the corner of Second Street and Riverside was under construction.[120]

ABRAMS

(1910, 1920, 1930)

SAM

Sam Abrams said,

Duncan: In 1908, my mother, sister Lena and I came over here. , I was 4 years old. We had a house behind the store in Duncan. My daddy had a mercantile business there. [121]

I never will forget my mama had a fit because my daddy had to work on Saturday. My sister and I went to a one-room schoolhouse on a hill. My sister, Lena, was older.[122]

Yes, I remember when we lived in Duncan. I was a little bitsy thing. I use to ride the train on Thursday afternoon with 3 or 4 chickens in the baskets to be killed by Rev. Freyman. And I had to come back Friday morning. I stayed with his family. One time, the chicken got loose on the train. I had to run him down. I’ve never forgotten that.[123]

BAKER

(1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

FRANK

Frank married Rosie Shefsky from Memphis. They had three boys and two girls:

Max, who worked in Ruleville, MS. Both worked with Morris and Harry in their business when they were all in Dublin; then, Frank moved to Clarksdale and opened a store.

FINK

(1900, 1920, 1930)

JAKE

Alvin Fink talked about his dad,

Jake returned to Duncan from New Orleans around 1908 to return and to work again for his brother-in-law Bernard.[124] He had earned monies in several ways while in New Orleans: exercising horses at the Fairgrounds, walking hot horses, boxing semi-pro at the Athletic Club, and in preliminaries as he qualified as a very light fly weight or a little above, and was very good with his fists. He also went to work in the shoe department at Kaufman's, a dry goods store and for Edmund Klotz, owner of a sugar plantation on the Bayou La Fouche in Klotzville, Louisiana. It was near Paincourville, a small village on Highway 1 that Jake ran the commissary on this large sugar plantation.

One of his experiences while in Louisiana was being treated for malaria in a Catholic hospital, Hotel Dieu. (Fink Family, Tucker, 4) He enjoyed watching the sisters in their long white habits as they came into his room. After dipping their fingers, the nuns made the cross. All opf this was a novelty to young Jake who had never before been around practicing Catholics. One day, after lighting a cigarette with a long kitchen match with phosphorus in it, he dropped the match in the holy water to douse the flam. He was unaware that the Sisters and nurses used it to put their hands in the holy water before crossing themselves. That night when the nun came into the room, she did turn on the light so as not to disturb her sleeping patient. As she usually did, she touched the holy water with her fingertips. The phosphorus in the bowl glowed in the dark phosphorus in the bowl glowed in the dark. She was sure that she had witnessed a miracle. The same nun later became the Mother Superior of the sisters who ran the hospital in New Orleans and she made trips all up and down the Mississippi River raising money for her order. She never failed to stop in Duncan to call on Jake who was by that time a prosperous merchant and cotton factor. Jake always remembered the hospital and the nuns who had nursed him back to health and always contributed generously to the sister who had witnessed the miracle.[125]

While in New Orleans he became friends with another Jake Fink who was a big pawn broker on Rampart Street. They maintained this friendship even when the pawn broker moved to Memphis, TN.[126]

Jake was no longer the callow youth who first appeared in .the Delta; however, he missed the high living that he had experienced in New Orleans. He had grown accustomed to gambling and saloons and fancy restaurants, as well as the companionship of virtue'. With monies he saved from his salaries and with some of his single friends from Duncan, soon he began to spend his weekends in Greenville, a wide open river port that offered many of the same pleasures that he’d grown used to in New Orleans. One of those weekend trips would proved propitious for him.[127]

On the way to Greenville he overheard a conversation on the train, two men discussing cotton futures. Although he knew very little, if anything about the cotton futures market, as soon as Jake stepped off the train, he went straight to the cotton exchange, and acting on the tip., bought cotton futures on margin. He then went to have a good time. First, to the barber shop for a bath and a shave as these things were not available in Duncan. He wiled away the rest of the weekend in a 'house of ill repute' where he was a favorite of the madam who was a very wealthy woman. In conversation, he told her that his brother-in-law had offered to sell Jake the store in Duncan if he could come up with the cash, but he was not literally asking her for it, only talking about his current interest. As he prepared to take his leave, the woman gave him the full amount, $2,500, and told him to buy the store and pay her back whenever he could. He often said that he had qualms about taking the money, but he was under no obligations to her; he did not have to consider whether the money came from or any of that sort of thing. He did not solicit the money; thus he took it. He was going back to Wolf to close the deal.[128]

With the money in his pocket, he left to catch the train. A certain Mr. Fass, a St. Louis Cotton man caught up with Jake at the station and told him that there was a world of money waiting for him at the cotton exchange. The market had gone up three days in a row very high and he had between $2,000 and $3,000 in profits. Alvin Fink said, “most families would leave it (that story) hidden in a closet.” But Jake Fink was always open and frank and willing to give credit to those who had helped him.:[129]

In a single weekend, by means of coincident and good luck, Jake had his stake. It was not the last time that he would resort to unconventional means in order to do business. In mid-summer of July or August, he went to St. Louis to buy goods for the Fall. He walked into Rice Sticks and told hem who he was and asked to open an account. At that time, he made lifelong friend with two people: Johnny Isaacs, who was in charge of credit in Mississippi and surrounding states and Fred Eisman, who was part of the official family of Rice Stixs. Both Jake and Fred bbenefitted from their friendship.[130]

Another wholesale house had a very tough credit manager. The man he talked to weighed almost 300 pounds. Jake was twenty-one years old He asked to open an account and told the manager what he had in assets . . The man said, : “Hey kid! Get out of here. We don’t need any business from the likes of you!” Jake Argued with him. . They got into quite a fist fight. Jake gave him a pretty good whipping. Afterwards, Jake became a good account of this firm; the credit manager often said that he was the only account he ever had gotten whipped by.y. [131]

HIRSBERG

(1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

Mrs. J. Hirsberg and children returned home from a visit in Evansville and Louisville, KY.

KERSTINE

(1868, 1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ROSA

Rosa was mated with her husband, Morris Weinberger.) Corinne added, :”I think that it was like “The Fiddler on the Roof” in those days. I think she must have met him there when she was living with her parents there at one time.”[132] Rosa had two uncles that lived in Hot Springs. Charles Kerstine a brother who lived in Hot Springs was buying property in Issaquena with her father. She must have met this man through them, but we really know nothing about it[133]. Information shows Weinberger was from Germany.[134] Selma talked about how they had put Rosa's wedding presents behind the store in a little makeshift building and somebody got in there and got all the gifts.[135]

Rosa married Morris Weinberger on 12/26/1906 at the Clarendon Hotel, Memphis, TN.[136] They lived in Hot Springs, AR. After her first child died at birth or sometime before her second pregnancy, she was warned by her doctor not to have a child because she had tuberculosis.[137]

SELMA WEINBERG

Rosa returned home to Clarksdale in April to give birth to her only child, Selma. Rosa died of tuberculosis three weeks (May 9) after Selma was born.[138] Because there was no Jewish cemetery in Clarksdale, she was buried in Helena, AR with her grandparents, Yetta and Isaac Brush. The author was told by the author, Carolyn LeMasters, that because there was no newspaper in Helena during this period of time (1905-1914) there was no obituary published in the Helena, Arkansas newspaper.

Selma was premature and weighed one and a half pounds at birth. Mollie and Adolph kept her in a drawer in cotton.[139] Mollie and Adolph, Selma's grandparents did not adopt her.a They did not want to give her their name. So they raised her, but she retained her father's last name. Corinne said, “I think grandfather Adolph wouldn’t allow [changing her name to Kerstine.].”[140]

Rosa’s husband went back to Hot Springs. He had a cleaning and tailoring shop in. Hot Springs; He did try to participate in Selma’s life by coming to see her in Clarksdale once a month. He would come in on one train and go out on the next one from Hot Springs. When, he remarried and moved to Chicago, she went to visit him. He died when she was six years old. She often said her step-mother was very nice to her.[141] She said she had a step-brother who was “not quite notmral. She did not explain his abnormalities.[142]

MOVE TO COLORADO

Al. Nachman walked into Kerstine’s store right after Isidor graduated from high school and asked him why he was not going to college. Isidor could not answer him, but later registered at . Isidor attended Colorado College, Colorado Springs, during his freshman year.[143]

Later in 1908 the family moved to Colorado. The reason was because of Caesar’s health, they moved to Denver first. Lillie met Isidor Rosenblum in Denver while he was in law school. At some point the family also lived in Manitou and Colorado Springs.[144]

Selma told about her great-aun't robbery during the same year, [

[My] grandmother had a sister that she was crazy about. This sister had a boarding house, I think in Helena. It was right after my mother died[], and some male boarder told her that if she would let him hypnotize her, he could grant any wish she wanted. She had taken off all her jewelry. She loved to wear jewelry, and she put it in a bag around her neck. She let him hypnotize her, and he stole that bag of jewelry and put some brass rings in there. When she woke up, he told her that he had the word to leave town and he left. She felt that bag and there were all brass rings instead of jewelry. There was one pin left. Mama thought it was a ruby, but I took it to someone down on Capitol Street, Jackson, MS. It is not a ruby, it's a garnet and it's not worth what she thought. It had one little gold leaf that broke off. I don't wear it because I was scared I'd lose it. Selma gave it to the author when she died.[145]

SACK/LEVY

(1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

JEANETTE

Married to Julius Lazarus Levy, MD; died 5/3/1993.[146]

CHILD

Julius Lazarus Levy Jr., M.D. Married Donna. They lived and worked in Clarksdale for a while; then they moved to New Orleans. He is a thoracic doctor.[147]

CHILDREN

I know there is Laurie. She was born about 1966. I don’t know if they have a son, but I know they have two girls. I don’t know if the third child is a girl or a boy.[148]

1909

Oakhurst School completed on a site donated by Elizabeth G. Dorr. The Booker T. Washington School was completed.[149]

ABRAMS

(1868, 1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

SAM

My older sister, Lena and I went to a one-room schoolhouse on a hill.[150]

Sam said,

Yes, I remember when we lived in Duncan. I was a little bitsy thing. I use to ride the train on Thursday afternoon with chickens in the baskets to be killed by the shochet [term for Jewish man who kills animals in an humane manner by kosher laws]. And I had to come back Friday morning. I stayed with his family. I took three or four with me. One time, the chicken got loose on the train. I had to run him down. I’ve never forgotten that.[151]

ALPERIN

(1910, 1920, 1930)

ARTHUR

Budgy Hirsberg said, “I knew him from the time I was born. He was a clerk for Jacob Hirsberg who was living in Friars Point before he moved to Rich.”[152]. Alperin and Charles Cohen were brothers-in-law; there were married to two sisters. Arthus was a short fat man who had a general store in Rich.[153]

BRENNER

(1880, 1890)

CHARLES

Charles Brenner had a store in Friars Point.[154]

[NOTE: Not yet able to determine if Brennerlived in Beulah’s Landing or Beulah, which are two different places. Hermine Davidson shows he was living in Beulah in the 20’s, 30’s and/or 40’s; However, his grandson, also named Charles Brenner talks about Beulah’s Landing (which is in Coahoma County]

FINK

(1910, 1920, 1930)

"Jake Fink: A Delta Entrepreneur." contnued:

The first decade of the twenties was a fine time to be young and energetic and Jake was definitely feeling his oats. All around him he saw prosperity. He was energized by the possibilities that he saw. He reveled in being his own boss, in being allowed to make his own decisions, use his skill and intelligence for his own profit. The population of the Delta was growing, the streets were being paved to facilitate the automobile. The building industry demanded timber,, the swamps were cleared and drained thus opening more land for agricultural use.[155]

By this time Jake was 23 years old he had become a very good salesman (Fink Family, Tucker, 7) Because Jake was the sole owner of his business, his work habits had changed. His dry goods store was almost instantly successful thanks to hard work and Jake' s affable manner. The young merchant could be quite a charmer when charm was called for instead of fists. He had opened the store early and stayed nights.[156]

By this time, Jake was not satisfied with shop keeping in Duncan was a little tame for a man who’d seen the bright lights of big cities, a man who'd swum in the East River in New York when he was a chap in knee britches, and brawled in the French Quarter of New Orleans as a young dandy. Looking around at the riches that the Delta offered, Jake saw opportunity all around him; he saw that the ‘real money’ was being made in cotton. Thus, he became learnred f to grade cotton and with this knowledge in his pocket, he used his native intelligence and all his charm to establish a business connection with Fisher Cotton Company in Greenville, Mississippi. He not only learned to class cotton. He began to buy cotton for Fisher and at the same time, he bought cotton for himself. He used to call Fisher several times a day to get his limit, to know what the market was doing; then, he would go out and buy cotton in the midmorning or afternoon. After the market closed in the afternoon he would come back and work in the store. He used to work on his books ‘till 1:00 or 2:00 am. He was making money hand over fist. It was just unbelievable how fast he was making it.[157]

HIRSBERG

(1868, 1880, 1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

BERNARD (“Budgie”) HIMAN:

Budgie said,

Actually, I was born in Evansville, Indiana; I was the third. That's where Mama's parents lived, and she would go up there to have each of her children. I had one older brother, an older sister, and one younger brother. There was Sol, the older brother, Leah, my sister, and D. H. my younger brother.[158]

We had a ferry from Friars Point across the river, but our prime contact was Clarksdale more so than Helena. We went to Arkansas occasionally, but there was no relationship and certainly no social relationship between Helena and us. It was more economics. There was a wholesale dry goods house in Helena and a wholesale grocery, that did serve Mississippi. I never really knew the people in Helena at all. My father never really did any business with them, but we knew who they were. No, we had no contacts over there.[159]

WOOLBERT

(1890, 1910, 1920, 1930)

ABRAHAM & YETTA

The house at 116 Oakhurst is right as you come across the bridge and go west on Oakhurst.

There were more divisions in Clarksdale. You got to rermember that Clarksdale was made up of a rather peculiar group. We tried but he never explained what he meant; he did include his grandfather (Abe Woolbert) in this remark.[160]

CLARKSDALE CITY SCHOOL DIAGRAM

Clarksdale School Diagram

The Annex was a light/crème brick building which sat closer to Second Street. There was a covered walkway between the Annex and Oakhurst and to the left was Elizabeth Dorr Junior High School.[161]

Although it was often referred to as the “Bobo Cemetery, ” it was the Dorr family cemetery. Elizabeth Dorr, had the original English land grant. Her family owned it. They owned all the way across the river to the northern limits of Clarksdale. It used to be called the Herrin Plantation. It extended to about the location of the 300 block of Second Street (where Dave Bernstein home was over to the railroad tracks.[162]



[1] Cooper, Forrest Lamar. “Mississippi Matter of Fact”, 1995 Calendar Florence, MS, 1995. [Note: use dates for page number.

[2] Ibid.

[3] "Coahoma County Is Famous Throughout Dixie for Its Abundant Crop." Clarksdale Daily Register and News (Clarksdale, Mississippi), September 3, 1936, Cotton Festival Edition, ed., 5

[4] Fink, Alvin personal interview and transcripts with author, November 27, 1993. Autobiographical papers included which was accidentally destroyed. Margery Kerstine Oral Interview Collection.

[5] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[6] Abernathy, Harry. "New World Scorned by Clarksdale's Elite." Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi), August 14-15, 1982, Clarksdale Centennial 1883-1982 Section ed., 4B.

[7] Talbert, J. L. Letter to Joe Clay Roberts, 1948, Clarksdale, Mississippi, Talbert Collection, Carnegie Public Library.

[8] Father of the blues, an autobiography W. C.Handy - Arna Bontemps - The Macmillan Co. - 1941.

[9] "Victor Binder Merchant, Dies at the Hospital." Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi), Carnegie Public Library Obituary Scrapbook Collection, comp. April 07, 1947.

[10] United States. National Archives. Washington, D C. “1910 United States Federal Census for Binden [sic ” Year: 1910; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 7B; Enumeration District: 0033; FHL microfilm: 1374750. Accessed August 29, 2014.; Page: 7B; Enumeration District: 0033; FHL microfilm: 1374750. 14 Lines 87-93.

[11] “1900 United States Federal Census for Samuel Cohen.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 806; Page: 24B; Enumeration District: 0026; FHL microfilm: 1240806, 47, Lines 73-74. Accessed October 25, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[12] Kline, Adele Cohen & Aaron Kline home interview and transcript with author and Corrine Kerstine, November 27, 1993.

[13] Franklin, Lynn. "Clarksdale Jewish Cemetery Burials." Beth Israel Cemetery. Accessed July 22, 2015. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~ssjdb/Clarksdale.htm.

[14] Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgy” interview and transcripts with author, April 27, 1994.

[15] Kline, Adele Cohen & Aaron Kline home interview and transcript with author and Corrine Kerstine, November 27, 1993.

[16] “1900 United States Federal Census for H Gordon.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 806; Page: 17A; Enumeration District: 0025; FHL microfilm: 1240806, 33, Line 6. Accessed October 25, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[17] “1920 United States Federal Census forJ Hirshberg.” Year: 1920; Census Place: Beat 2, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T625_873; Page: 13A; Enumeration District: 28; Image: 691, 24, Lines 1-5. Accessed November 8, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[18] “1920 United States Federal Census forJ Hirshberg.” Year: 1920; Census Place: Beat 2, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T625_873; Page: 13A; Enumeration District: 28; Image: 691, 24, Lines 1-5. Accessed November 8, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgy” interview and transcripts with author, April 27, 1994.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgy” interview with Plaut, Rabbi Joshua, 1986.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Clarksdale Challenger (Clarksdale, Mississippi), March 18, 1900.

[25] Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgy” interview and transcripts with author, April 27, 1994.

[26] Clarksdale Challenger (Clarksdale, Mississippi), March 1, 1900.

[27] Clarksdale Challenger (Clarksdale, Mississippi), April 5, 1900.

[28]1900 United States Federal Census for A Kerstine.” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 11B; Enumeration District: 0025; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 22, Lines 68-74. Accessed October 25, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[29] Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcripts with author, 1977-1998, Margery Kerstine Collection.

Kerstine, Corinne interview with Harold Forst, Jackson, MS., December, 19/85, transcript. Margery Kerstine Collection.

[30] Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcripts with author, 1977-1998, Margery Kerstine Collection.

Kerstine, Corinne interview with Harold Forst, Jackson, MS., December, 19/85, transcript. Margery Kerstine Collection.

[31] Dabbs, Miriam. "LANDRYS Since 1891." Here's Clarksdale, March/April 1978, 7.

[32] Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcripts with author, 1977-1998, Margery Kerstine Collection.

Kerstine, Corinne interview with Harold Forst, Jackson, MS., December, 19/85, transcript. Margery Kerstine Collection.

[33] “1900 United States Federal Census forAL Nochman [sic] Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 4, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: 805; Page: 14B; Enumeration District: 0025; FHL microfilm: 1240805, 28,Line 87. Accessed November 8, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[34] Clarksdale Challenger (Clarksdale, Mississippi), March 8, 1900.

[35] Ibid, March 10, 1900,

[36] Pachter, John. David Pachter's My Life and Times 1913 to 1933. 2000. Greenwood Public Library

Pachter, John.. Computer-generated, genealogical unpublished manuscript of Pachters. Pachter Private Collection, 2000.

[37] McCullough, David. The Johnstown Flood. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1968.

[38] “1900 United States Federal Census for Henry L Pachtn [sic].” Year: 1900; Census Place: Beat 5, Tallahatchie, Mississippi; Roll: 829; Page: 3A; Enumeration District: 0060; FHL microfilm: 1240829, 4, Lines 8-9. Accessed November 30, 2015. http:/http://interactive.ancestry. com.

[39] Pachter, John. David Pachter's My Life and Times 1913 to 1933. 2000. Greenwood Public Library

Pachter, John.. Computer-generated, genealogical unpublished manuscript of Pachters. Pachter Private Collection, 2000.

[40] Ibid, June 7, 1900.

[41] Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgy” interview and transcripts with author, April 27, 1994.

[42] Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with author, March 16, 1995, transcript, Margery Kerstine Collection

[43] Weeks, Linton. “Banks,” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (P.O. Box 280, Clarksdale 38614): Carnegie Public Library, 1982., 171-172.

[44] Ibid.

[45] Weeks, Linton. “Ink in Their Veins,” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (P.O. Box 280, Clarksdale 38614): Carnegie Public Library, 1982., 164.

[46] Ibid, March 8, 1900.

[47] Ibid, March 15, 1900.

[48] “Quick Returns from Delta Lands”, Illustrated Clarksdale and Coahoma County, 17.

[49] Cooper, Forrest Lamar. “Mississippi Matter of Fact”, 1995 Calendar Florence, MS, 1995. [Note: use dates for page number.]

[50] Abrams, Marilyn Binder , Binder Genealogical Private Collection.

Franklin, Lynn. "Clarksdale Jewish Cemetery Burials." Beth Israel Cemetery. Accessed July 22, 2015. http://freepages. genealogy.rootsweb. ancestry.com/~ssjdb/Clarksdale.htm.

[51] Year: 1920; Census Place: Greenwood, Leflore, Mississippi; Roll: T625_883; Page: 16B; Enumeration District: 88; Image: 833, 32, Lines 94-97. Accessed November 8, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[52] Fink, Alvin personal interview and transcripts with author, November 27, 1993. Autobiographical papers included which was accidentally destroyed.

Tucker, Judy H., and Margery H. Kerstine. "Jake Fink: A Delta Entrepreneur." Arkansas Review: A Journal of Delta Studies 31, no. 1 (December 2000): 214-219.

[53] Adelson, Pauline Fink personal interview and transcript with author, October 31, 1999.

[54] Fink, Alvin personal interview and transcripts with author, November 27, 1993. Autobiographical papers included which was accidentally destroyed.

Tucker, Judy H., and Margery H. Kerstine. "Jake Fink: A Delta Entrepreneur." Arkansas Review: A Journal of Delta Studies 31, no. 1 (December 2000): 214-219.

[55] Ibid.

[56] “Mileage Calculator-Shelby, MS.” http://www.theaa.com/driving/miscalculation. Automobile Association Developments Ltd 2015.

[57] Ibid.

[58] Ibid.

[59] Ibid.

[60] “1910 United States Federal Census'_Year: 1910; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 12B; Enumeration District: 0033; FHL microfilm: 1374750, 24 Lines 86-90. Accessed November 30, 2015. http://interactive .ancestry.com.

“May Lavinein [sic] in the1920 United States Federal Census.” Year: 1920; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T625_873; Page: 20A; Enumeration District: 37; Image: 972, 39, Lines 27-30. Accessed November 130 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[61] Franklin, Lynn. "Clarksdale Jewish Cemetery Burials." Beth Israel Cemetery. Accessed July 22, 2015. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~ssjdb/Clarksdale.htm.

"Funeral for Mrs. Levinsonl." Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi), Carnegie Public Library Obituary Scrapbook Collection, comp. June 29, 1928. Clarksdale Library Obituary Scrapbook.

[62] Weeks, Linton. “Majors and Alderman of Clarksdale.” 219.

[63] Dabbs, Miriam. "The Mayors of Clarksdale." Here's Clarksdale, January/February 1975, 7.

[64] Abrams, Sam and Lollie personal interview and transcript with author, January 17, 1994.

[65] Pachter, John. David Pachter's My Life and Times 1913 to 1933. 2000. Greenwood Public Library

Pachter, John.. Computer-generated, genealogical unpublished manuscript of Pachters. Pachter Private Collection, 2000.

[66] Cobb, James C. The Most Southern Place on Earth: The Mississippi Delta and the Roots of Regional Identity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. 102-103.

[67] Jennings, James. "History of Floods in the Delta." Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi), March 17, 2002, Front sec.

Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[68] Edwards, Olive. "The Clarksdale Hospital." Here's Clarksdale, September/October, 1978, 6-9.

[69] Handy, William C. Father of the Blues, NY. The Macmillian Company, 1941,

[70] Glassman, Julia Baker interviews between 2002 and 2010 included papers from Genealogical Collection, Memphis Tennessee.

[71] Ibid.

[72] Ibid.

[73] Ibid.

[74] “1910 United States Federal Census for Ida Frank.” Year: 1910; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 3A; Enumeration District: 0033; FHL microfilm: 1374750, 5 Lines 35-43. Accessed December 5, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[75] “1920 United States Federal Census for Max Friedman.” Year: 1920; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T625_873; Page: 10A; Enumeration District: 36; Image: 851, 19, Lines 38-41. Accessed December 12, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[76] WPA Historical Research Project of Coahoma County, Assignment #3, Mrs. J. L. McKeown, Canvasser, July 15, 1936.

[77] “1920 United States Federal Census for Harry May.” Year: 1920; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T625_873; Page: 42A; Enumeration District: 36; Image: 914 82, Lines 2-9. “1920 Accessed December 13, 2015. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[78] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[79] "Jewish Historical Edition of Clarksdale, Mississippi." Jewish Ledger [New Orleans, LA] Mar. 1923, 5.

[80] Abrams, Sam and Lollie personal interview and transcript with author, January 17, 1994.

[81] "Jewish Historical Edition of Clarksdale, Mississippi." Jewish Ledger [New Orleans, LA] Mar. 1923, 5.

[82] Abrams, Sam and Lollie personal interview and transcript with author, January 17, 1994.

[83] United States. National Archives. Washington, D C. “Interactive.ancestry.com ” Year: 1910; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 7B; Enumeration District: 0033; FHL microfilm: 1374750. Accessed August 29, 2014). http://www. ancestry.com.

[84] United States. National Archives. Washington, D C. “Interactive.ancestry.com ” Year: 1910; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 7B; Enumeration District: 0033; FHL microfilm: 1374750, 14, Lines 60-65. Accessed August 29, 2014. http://www. ancestry.com.

[85] Abrams Marilyn Binder genealogical private collection, Knoxville, Tennessee.

[86] Tucker, Judy and Margery Kerstine. "Jake Fink: A Delta Entrepreneur." Arkansas Review 31, no. 3 (December 2000): 214-220.

Fink, Alvin personal interview and transcripts with author, November 27, 1993. Autobiographical papers included which was accidentally destroyed. Margery Kerstine Oral Interview Collection.

[87] Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with author, March 16, 1995, transcript, Margery Kerstine Collection.

[88] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[89] Kaufman, Irwin interviews and transcript with author, November 18, 1993, Margery Kerstine's Oral Interview Collection. Kaufman's Private collection. Memphis, Tennessee.

[90] Hibbert, Paul Santa Fe, NM email, date not recorded.

[91] “1910 United States Federal Census for Rosa Freidman [SIC].” Year: 1910; Census Place: Beat 3, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 20A; Enumeration District: 0029; FHL microfilm: 1374750, 38, Lines 39-42. Accessed January 9, 2016. http://www. ancestry.com.

Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with author, March 16, 1995, transcript, Margery Kerstine Collection.

[92] Ibid.

[93] Ibid.

[94] Ibid.

[95] Nelson, Gertrude, Friedman interview with author, March 16, 1995, transcript, Margery Kerstine Collection.

[96] Ibid.

[97] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

[98] "Jewish Historical Edition of Clarksdale, Mississippi." Jewish Ledger [New Orleans, LA] Mar. 1923.

[99] "Largest Department Store in Clarksdale." Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi), Carnegie Public Library Microfilm Scrapbook #1 ed.

[100] Kerstine, Corinne interview with Harold Forst, Jackson, MS., December, 19/85, transcript. Margery Kerstine Collection.

[101] Year: 1900 United States Federal Census for John H Smally.[Sic]” 1900; Census Place: Beat 5, Tallahatchie, Mississippi; Roll: 829; Page: 31A; Enumeration District: 0060; FHL microfilm: 1240829, 59. Accessed January 3, 2016. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

1910 United States Federal Census for John Small.” Year: 1910; Census Place: Clarksdale, Coahoma, Mississippi; Roll: T624_737; Page: 3A; Enumeration District: 0033; FHL microfilm: 1374750, 5, Lines 10-12. Accessed January 3, 2016. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[102] Weinberger, Selma home interview and transcripts with author 1987-2001.

[103] Fink, Alvin personal interview and transcripts with author, November 27, 1993. Autobiographical papers included which was accidentally destroyed. Margery Kerstine Oral Interview Collection.

[104] Weinberger, Selma home interview and transcripts with author 1987-2001.

[105] Koppman, Lionel, and Bernard Postal. Guess Who's Jewish in American History, Volume 2. New York, NY: Shapolsky Books, 1986, 241.

[106] "Our Hotels." Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi), October 10, 1907, Carnegie Public Library Microfilm Scrapbook #1, Clarksdale, Mississippi.

Dabbs, Miriam. "Clarksdale's Tuttle Hotel." Here's Clarksdale, November/December 1976, 16-22.

[107] Ibid.

[108] Ibid.

[109] Ibid.

[110] Ibid.

[111] Ibid.

[112] Ibid.

[113] Friars Point Coahomian (Friars Point, Mississippi), September 14, 1907.

[114] Weinberger, Selma home interview and transcripts with author 1987-2001.

Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcript with author, Jackson, MS., December, 1985, transcript. Margery Kerstine Private Collection.

[115] Fink, Alvin personal interview and transcripts with author, November 27, 1993. Autobiographical papers included which was accidentally destroyed. Margery Kerstine Oral Interview Collection.

[116] Ibid.

[117] Fink, Alvin personal interview and transcripts with author, November 27, 1993. Autobiographical papers included which was accidentally destroyed.

[118] Ibid.

[119] Martin, Stella. "Local Fire Department Has Grown Steadily." Clarksdale Press Register (Clarksdale, Mississippi).

[120] Kaufman, Irwin Research Collection, “Points of Interest.” Clarksdale’s Greatest Asset—Her Schools.”

[121] Abrams, Sam and Lollie personal interview and transcript with author, January 17, 1994.

[122] Ibid.

[123] Ibid.

[124] Fink, Alvin personal interview and transcripts with author, November 27, 1993. Autobiographical papers included which was accidentally destroyed. Margery Kerstine Oral Interview Collection.

Tucker, Judy and Margery Kerstine. "Jake Fink: A Delta Entrepreneur." Arkansas Review 31, no. 3 (December 2000): 214-20.

[125] Ibid.

[126] Ibid.

[127] Ibid.

[128] Ibid.

[129] Ibid.

[130] Ibid.

[131] Ibid.

[132] Weinberger, Selma home interview and transcripts with author 1987-2001.

Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcript with author, Jackson, MS., December, 1985, transcript. Margery Kerstine Private Collection.

[133] Ibid.

[134] Frost, Harold interviews with author, 1977-1998,.

[135] Weinberger, Selma home interview and transcripts with author 1987-2001.

[136] Samfield, Rabbi Sam. Marriage Registry: 1871-1915. Temple Israel Archives, Memphis, TN.

[137] Weinberger, Selma home interview and transcripts with author 1987-2001.

[138] “Weinberger Rosa Kerstine.” http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/ ~ssjdb/ BethElHelena.htm. Accessed January 3, 2016. http://interactive.ancestry.com.

[139] Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcript with author, Jackson, MS., December, 1985, transcript. Margery Kerstine Private Collection.

[140] Ibid.

[141] Ibid.

[142] Ibid.

[143] Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgy” interview and transcripts with author, April 27, 1994.

[144] Ibid.

[145] Weinberger, Selma home interview and transcripts with author 1987-2001.

[146] Franklin, Lynn. "Clarksdale Jewish Cemetery Burials." Beth Israel Cemetery. Accessed July 22, 2015. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~ssjdb/Clarksdale.htm.

[147] Kerstine, Corinne interview and transcript with author, Jackson, MS., December, 1985, transcript. Margery Kerstine Private Collection.

[148] Ibid.

[149] Sage, Harold K. and Madge P. Baucom. Clarksdale-Coahoma County, 1836-1936: One hundred years of progress in the Mississippi Delta: Centennial Edition. Delta Staple Cotton Festival Association 1936.

Kaufman, Irwin Research Collection, .” Clarksdale’s Greatest Asset—Her Schools.”

[150] Abrams, Sam and Lollie personal interview and transcript with author, January 17, 1994.

[151] Ibid.

[152] Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgie” interview and transcripts with author, April 27, 1994.

[153] Ibid.

[154] Ibid.

[155] Tucker, Judy and Margery Kerstine. "Jake Fink: A Delta Entrepreneur." Arkansas Review 31, no. 3 (December 2000): 214-20.

Fink, Alvin personal interview and transcripts with author, November 27, 1993. Autobiographical papers included which was accidentally destroyed. Margery Kerstine Oral Interview Collection.

Weeks, Linton. “The New World-1900-1930.” Clarksdale & Coahoma County: A History. Clarksdale, Miss. (P.O. Box 280, Clarksdale 38614): Carnegie Public Library, 1982.

[156] Tucker, Judy and Margery Kerstine. "Jake Fink: A Delta Entrepreneur." Arkansas Review 31, no. 3 (December 2000): 214-20.

[157] Ibid.

[158] Hirsberg, Bernard, “Budgie” interview and transcripts with author, April 27, 1994.

[159] Ibid.

[160] Fink, Alvin personal interview and transcripts with author, November 27, 1993. Autobiographical papers included which was accidentally destroyed. Margery Kerstine Oral Interview Collection.

[161] Ibid.

[162] Ibid.


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